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Microsoft Excel-Based Tool Kit for Planning Hybrid Energy Systems: A User Guide
This Microsoft Excel-based tool kit intends to support planning hybrid renewable energy systems based on experiences of pilot projects in ADB’s South Asian developing member countries.
Dec 2017EnergyGuides
Kazakhstan—The economy is rising: It is still all about oil (Country Economic Update)
This edition of the Kazakhstan Country Economic Update is part of a semiannual series designed to monitor socio-economic developments in Kazakhstan. It presents a concise analysis of political, economic and social developments, as well as a progress report on structural reform implementation, during the first nine months of 2017.
(World Bank)
Nov 2017EnergyResearch and reports
Kazakhstan: Energy Efficiency Transformation in Astana and Almaty—Municipal Energy Efficiency Plan for the City of Astana
This report outlines the results and key findings of an energy efficiency (EE) studyconducted by the World Bank between November 2016 and November 2017 in Astana. The objective of this study is to outline an urban EE strategy for the next 12 years for the city of Astana, up to 2030, by assessing the energy performance of the municipal service sectors and identifying and prioritizing EE opportunities along with a sound implementation plan.
(World Bank)
Nov 2017EnergyResearch and reports
CAREC 2030: Connecting the Region for Shared and Sustainable Development | РУССКИЙ
CAREC 2030 builds on the solid foundation of progress made under CAREC 2020, and provides the new long-term strategic framework for the CAREC Program leading to 2030. CAREC 2030 is aligned with national strategies and with the 2030 global development agenda.
Oct 2017Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
Improving Lives of Rural Communities Through Developing Small Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems
Case studies highlight experiences of six pilot projects on the development of small hybrid renewable energy systems in Asian rural areas and small isolated islands.
Sep 2017EnergyBriefs and notes
Asian Development Bank and Turkmenistan: Fact Sheet
ADB operations in Turkmenistan focus on enhancements to transport and energy sectors, with infrastructure projects fostering regional cooperation.
Apr 2017Transport, EnergyWorking papers
Economics of Climate Change Mitigation in Central and West Asia
This report provides an assessment of the costs, benefits, and investment opportunities for greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement in the energy and transport sectors of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan.
Mar 2017EnergyResearch and reports
Stuck in Transition: Reform Experiences and Challenges Ahead in the Kazakhstan Power Sector
This study draws on the World Bank’s long-standing engagement in Kazakhstan’s energy sector and a number of recent technical assistance and advisory support activities.
(World Bank)
Mar 2017EnergyResearch and reports
Energy Storage in Grids with High Penetration of Variable Generation
With increased emphasis on reducing emissions from the power sector, grid-level energy storage can enable larger penetration of renewable energy into the grid.
Feb 2017EnergyResearch and reports
CAREC Development Effectiveness Review 2015 | РУССКИЙ
This CAREC Program Development Effectiveness Review is the sixth annual consolidated picture of progress made by country and multilateral institution partners of CAREC toward economic development through regional cooperation. It measures the performance of CAREC projects and initiatives in transport, trade, and energy during 2015; highlights achievements; identifies areas for improvement; and proposes actions to meet emerging challenges and assist in strategic decision making.
Oct 2016Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
CAREC 2020 Midterm Review | РУССКИЙ
The purpose of the Mid-Term Review (MTR) is to review the relevance and responsiveness of CAREC 2020, including implementation performance, results achieved and the effectiveness of the CAREC institutions; to draw lessons from the experience gained in the first five years of the strategy; and to propose refinements and strategies moving forward.
Oct 2016Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
Outlook for Increased Adoption of Smart Grid Technologies in ADB Energy Sector Operations
The working paper presents an overview of technical and functional details on smart grids to provide a framework for increased integration of the technology in Asian Development Bank’s Energy Sector operations.
Apr 2016EnergyWorking papers
CAREC Development Effectiveness Review 2014 | РУССКИЙ
This brochure summarizes what CAREC achieved during 2014 and what its priorities are for 2015 and beyond. Total investments reached around $24.6 billion in 156 projects by the end of 2014.
Jan 2016Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
From Landlocked to Linked In: The Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program | РУССКИЙ
This publication discusses the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program as a partnership of 10 countries supported by six multilateral institutions. The program invests in regional infrastructure and initiatives to promote connectivity and trade, helping the mostly landlocked countries reach out to global markets. The deepening regional trade links are also opening up previously unexploited resources, including huge energy resources.
Sep 2015Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, Energy, Regional CooperationCAREC Publications
Improving Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions through Intelligent Railway Station Buildings
This report aims to support the People’s Republic of China national carbon emission reduction plan in railway station buildings.
Sep 2015Transport, EnergyResearch and reports
CAREC Development Effectiveness Review 2013: A Refined Perspective | РУССКИЙ
This review measures the performance of CAREC projects and initiatives in transport, trade, and energy during 2013; highlights achievements; identifies areas for improvement; and proposes actions to meet emerging challenges and assist in strategic decision making.
Nov 2014Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
CAREC Development Effectiveness Review (DEfR) 2013: A Refined Perspective | РУССКИЙ
This DEfR is the fifth annual consolidated picture of progress made by country and multilateral institution partners of CAREC toward economic development through regional cooperation. This brochure provides a snapshot of the CAREC Program's progress in 2013.
Oct 2014Transport, Trade Facilitation, Energy, Trade PolicyCAREC Publications
Price of Electricity Transit in Transition Countries | РУССКИЙ
This report analyzes various issues related to electricity transit in selected countries of Central and South Asia and compares existing transit tariff methodologies and to make recommendations to the respective decision making bodies of the region.
(Energy Charter)
Oct 2014EnergyResearch and reports
Energy Security in Asia: Prospects for Regional Cooperation
Three case studies illustrate some of the secondary consequences of the search for energy security and its relationship to regional trade and cooperation.
(Lucas, Nigel / ADB)
Sep 2014EnergyWorking Papers
Climate Change and Sustainable Water Management in Central Asia
Describes the results of research conducted thru an ADB-funded technical assistance that combined field observations with satellite-based data and created models to demonstrate the impacts of climate change on the Aral Sea Basin.
(Punkari, Mikko; Droogers, Peter; Immerzeel, Walter; Korhonen, Natalia; Lutz, Arthur; Venäläinen, Ari / ADB)
May 2014EnergyWorking Papers
Together We Deliver: 10 Stories from ADB-Supported Projects with Clear Development Impacts
Highlights successful Asian Development Bank projects across Asia and the Pacific that demonstrated development impacts, best practice, and innovation. A recurring theme of the projects is the partnerships among developing member countries, ADB, other organizations, and individuals.
Apr 2014Transport, Regional Cooperation, EnergyBooks
CAREC in Tajikistan: Building a Global Future | РУССКИЙ
Tajikistan is committed to expanding mutually beneficial economic cooperation with all countries and has actively participated in the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Program since 1998. CAREC seeks to boost the country’s prosperity by increasing access to trade and transport services and supporting the expansion of the energy sector.
Jan 2014Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
Energy Access and Energy Security in Asia and the Pacific
Provides an in-depth analysis on the current state of energy poverty in Asia and the prospects and prescriptions for advancing energy affordability and access.
(Benjamin K. Sovacool / ADB)
Dec 2013EnergyWorking papers
Maximizing Access to Energy for the Poor in Developing Asia
Highlights recent and ongoing projects that help ADB reduce “energy poverty” through focused efforts and innovative solutions.
Dec 2013EnergyOthers
Energy Outlook for Asia and the Pacific
Attempts to identify policy, social, infrastructure, and technology issues that must be addressed to meet the future energy needs of Asian Development Bank members in Asia and the Pacific.
Oct 2013EnergyBooks
Economics of Climate Change in East Asia
Examines how strategies for adapting to climate change up to 2050 can be combined with measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in East Asia. The study includes the People's Republic of China, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Mongolia.
Oct 2013EnergyBooks
CAREC Development Effectiveness Review 2012: Implementing CAREC 2020 – Vision and Action (Brochure) | РУССКИЙ
A snapshot of the CAREC Program's progress in 2012.
Oct 2013Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
CAREC Development Effectiveness Review 2012: Implementing CAREC 2020 – Vision and Action | РУССКИЙ
This CAREC DeFR is the fourth annual consolidated picture of progress made by country and multilateral institution partners of CAREC toward economic development through regional cooperation. It measures the performance of CAREC projects and initiatives in transport, trade, and energy during 2012; highlights achievements; identifies areas for improvement; and proposes actions to meet emerging challenges and assist in strategic decision making.
Sep 2013Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
What is Economic Corridor Development and What Can It Achieve in Asia’s Subregions?
Contains case studies by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) indicating benchmarks on characteristics of economic corridors. Expounds on development and regional integration challenges along economic corridors and the dynamics of economic corridor development.
Jul 2013Transport, EnergyWorking Papers
Tajikistan's Winter Energy Crisis
Explores a range of supply and demand alternatives (e.g., thermal, run-of-river hydro, other renewables, energy efficiency and demand management) to assist the Government of Tajikistan in exploring ways to overcome electricity shortages due to rising demand for electricity.
(World Bank)
Jul 2013EnergyResearch and reports
Same Energy, More Power: Accelerating Energy Efficiency in Asia
Examines prospects for the Asian Development Bank (ADB) to ramp up efforts in the region for greater utilization of demand-side energy efficiency. The report further identifies global and regional trends that are driving Asia’s energy demand and the resulting policy and regulatory environment for energy efficiency.
Jun 2013EnergyResearch and reports
Guidelines for Climate Proofing Investment in the Energy Sector
Provides a step-by-step methodological approach to help project teams assess and incorporate climate change adaptation measures into energy investment projects.
May 2013EnergyBooks
Growing Green: The Economic Benefits of Climate Action
Identifies actions governments in Central Asian countries can take to reduce carbon footprints in their economies. To realize the benefits, policy makers need to quickly prioritize three areas: use energy much more efficiently, gradually move to cleaner energy sources, and increase carbon capture in soils and forests.
(World Bank)
Apr 2013EnergyResearch and reports
Tajikistan's Winter Energy Crisis: Electricity Supply and Demand Alternatives
This study aims to assist the Government of Tajikistan in finding ways to overcome the country's frequent power shortages, and to establish sound structures and procedures for meeting the growing domestic electricity demand.
(Daryl Fields, Artur Kochnakyan, Gary Stuggins, John Besant-Jones / World Bank)
Nov 2012EnergyWorking papers
Regional Economic Outlook: Middle East and Central Asia (November 2012)
The economic outlook for the Caucasus and Central Asia remains favorable, reflecting high oil prices that are benefiting oil and gas exporters, supportive commodity prices and remittance inflows benefiting oil and gas importers, and, for both groups, moderate direct exposure to Europe. The positive outlook provides an opportunity to strengthen policy buffers to prepare for any downside risks.
Nov 2012Economy, EnergyResearch and reports
Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation: Power Sector Regional Master Plan
The master plan identifies projects that will improve energy security, energy efficiency, and energy trade between Afghanistan and the four Central Asian countries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. It studies the integrated development of the regional power system and looks for long-term solutions to balance demand and supply.
Oct 2012Energy, Regional CooperationResearch and reports
Shifting Comparative Advantages in Tajikistan: Implications for Growth Strategy
The future development of the Tajik economy will be shaped by its comparative advantage on world markets. Exploiting comparative advantage enables an economy to reap gains from trade. Tajikistan’s most important comparative advantage is its hydropower potential, which is far larger than the economy’s domestic requirements.
(Souleymane Coulibaly / World Bank)
Jul 2012Energy, EconomyWorking papers
Europe and Central Asia Balancing Act: Cutting Subsidies, Protecting Affordability, and Investing in the Energy Sector in Eastern Europe and Central Asian Region
This report assesses, at the micro-level for the whole region, the distributional impact of raising energy tariffs to cost-recovery levels and to simulate policy options to cushion these impacts.
(World Bank)
Jun 2012EnergyWorking papers
Geothermal Handbook: Planning and Financing Power Generation
This handbook is dedicated to geothermal energy as a source of electric power for developing countries. Many developing countries are endowed with substantial geothermal resources that could be more actively put to use.
(Magnus Gehringer, Victor Loksha / World Bank)
Jun 2012EnergyResearch and reports
Evaluating the Environment for Public-Private Partnerships in Asia-Pacific: The 2011 Infrascope
This document comprises a summary and analysis of a benchmark index and learning tool that assesses the capacity of countries in the Asia–Pacific region to carry out sustainable public–private infrastructure partnerships, as of June 2011. The study scores aspects of the regulatory and institutional frameworks, project experience and success, the investment climate, and the financial facilities in 11 developing countries (including CAREC member countries People's Republic of China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and Pakistan); in four benchmark countries (Australia, Japan, Republic of Korea, United Kingdom; and in India’s state of Gujarat.
(Economist Intelligence Unit / ADB)
May 2012Transport, Energy, Private SectorResearch and reports
CAREC 2020: A Strategic Framework for the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program 2011–2020 | РУССКИЙ
CAREC 2020 provides the strategic framework for the Program’s next 10 years. It reflects the required enhancements in the Comprehensive Action Plan to move the Program toward its vision of Good Partners, Good Neighbors, and Good Prospects.
Feb 2012Regional Cooperation, Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
Indicators for the Asian Development Bank Energy Sector Operations (2005–2010)
This is a report of indicators for ADB’s energy sector operations. Databases of energy projects and technical assistance projects approved during 2005–2010 have been created. The project database includes relevant information from 99 energy sector projects and 35 non-energy sector projects with clean energy components.
Jan 2012EnergyResearch and reports
Spending on Public Infrastructure: A Practitioner's Guide
This paper provides a methodological tool to support the collection and preparation of standardized, comprehensive data regarding public spending on infrastructure services that can be rigorously compared across countries. Infrastructure is defined to cover six sectors: irrigation, energy (primarily power), transport, communication, wastewater management, and water supply.
(Cecilia Briceno-Garmendia, Afua Sarkodie / World Bank)
Dec 2011Energy, Transport, EconomyWorking papers
The New Silk Road: Ten Years of the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program
This commemorative book celebrates 10 years of productive collaboration under the CAREC Program. Under the Program, member countries have made significant gains in regional transport, energy infrastructure, and trade facilitation and policy. The spirit of trust and confidence that has evolved through the years among good neighbors and good partners has led to better prospects for all.
Dec 2011Regional Cooperation, Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
Energy for All: Asia’s Night Skies Reveal Growth and Gaps in Electrification
The images in this brochure compare and contrast night sky views of Asia and the Pacific from 1992 and 2009—a 17-year span. As modern energy powers development and economic growth, the expansion of brightly lit areas and the increased brightness of existing areas show how access to electricity has increased across Asia and the Pacific. Conversely, there are areas that remain dark, despite the fact that they contain substantial populations.
Sep 2011EnergyOthers
Consolidation and Collaboration: Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program’s Energy Policy in Tajikistan | РУССКИЙ
Energy is a priority of the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Program. The region’s resources are abundant and varied but unevenly distributed, which offers great potential for cooperation. This brochure shows how collaboration among CAREC countries is the best route to tapping their vast energy resources.
Sep 2011EnergyOthers
Rising Food and Energy Prices in Europe and Central Asia | РУССКИЙ
This paper presents the possible impact of rising food and fuel prices on Europe and Central Asian countries’ macroeconomic and poverty outcomes. It aims to illustrate the possible short-run consequences of rising prices and the countries that are most likely to be significantly affected, both adversely and positively. At the same time, it notes the importance of medium-term policy and non-policy related factors that could mitigate adverse consequences of commodity price increases.
(World Bank)
Apr 2011Energy, EconomyResearch and reports
Azerbaijan: A Cradle of Humanity Embraces Modernity
This development effectiveness brief features operations of the Asian Development Bank in Azerbaijan that reflect the Government of Azerbaijan’s priorities, including economic diversification beyond the oil sector. The Asian Development Bank’s work in Azerbaijan has focused on promoting inclusive economic growth, as well as supporting regional cooperation efforts.
Mar 2011Transport, Energy, Regional Cooperation, EconomyBriefs and notes
Kazakhstan: On the Path to Higher Levels of Development
This development effectiveness brief summarizes the assistance that the Asian Development Bank (ADB) has provided to Kazakhstan. The ADB country partnership strategy for 2011–2014 will support Kazakhstan in going beyond its middle-income country status. ADB will promote inclusive economic growth and competitiveness through complementary public and private sector investments. Further, ADB will consolidate its resources to support synergized investments in energy, transport, finance, and the urban sectors.
Mar 2011Transport, Energy, Regional Cooperation, EconomyBriefs and notes
Infrastructure and Growth in Developing Asia
This paper presents the state of infrastructure in developing Asian countries. It applies two distinct approaches (growth regressions and growth accounting) to analyze the link between infrastructure, growth, and productivity. The main conclusion is that a number of countries in developing Asia have significantly improved their basic infrastructure endowments in the recent past, and this appears to correlate significantly to good growth performances.
(Stéphane Straub, Akiko Terada-Hagiwara / ADB)
Jan 2011Transport, Economy, Energy, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Afghanistan: Modernizing Asia's Crossroads
This development effectiveness brief focuses on Asian Development Bank (ADB) assistance in Afghanistan. ADB has concentrated its loans and grants in energy, transport, irrigation, agriculture, governance, and finance. ADB has also used private sector support to help invigorate banking, and telecommunications.
Nov 2010Transport, Energy, Regional Cooperation, EconomyBriefs and notes
Paths to 2015: MDG Priorities in Asia and the Pacific-Asia-Pacific MDG Report 2010/11
This report is Asia and the Pacific’s assessment of progress made in achieving the Millennium Development Goals in 2015. It examines likely outcomes on present trends, identifies some of the weakest areas of performance, and presents priorities for accelerated action in achieving the Millennium Development Goals. It focuses on three areas where increased and sustained policy attention is required: hunger and food security, health and basic services, and basic infrastructure—areas where many of the countries in the region appear to be facing significant challenges.
Nov 2010Transport, Energy, Poverty, EconomyResearch and reports
Diagnostic Study on Pillar 3 of the CAREC Energy Strategy: Energy–Water Linkages | РУССКИЙ
The overall aim of the ESCC Pillar 3 energy-water linkages is to build regional energy and water security through enhanced regional cooperation in energy and water resources development and management.
Nov 2010EnergyWorking papers
Diagnostic Study on Pillar 1 of the CAREC Energy Strategy: Energy Demand/Supply Balance and Infrastructure Constraints | РУССКИЙ
This study of the Energy Action Plan involves carrying out a diagnostics evaluation on the energy supply/demand balance and infrastructure constraints, and to identify the status regarding completed, ongoing and planned energy sector projects which will have an impact on the intra-regional power trade capability.
Oct 2010EnergyResearch and reports
Diagnostic Study on Pillar 2 of the CAREC Energy Strategy: Regional Dispatch and Regulatory Development | РУССКИЙ
The main objectives of this short-term study are to provide a preliminary assessment of the opportunities and challenges in strengthening electricity dispatch and system operations across Central Asia.
(World Bank)
Oct 2010EnergyResearch and reports
Price of Electricity Transit in Transition Countries | РУССКИЙ
This report analyzes various issues related to electricity transit in selected countries of Central and South Asia and compares existing transit tariff methodologies and to make recommendations to the respective decision making bodies of the region.
(Energy Charter)
Oct 2010EnergyResearch and reports
Trends in National and Regional Investors Financing Crossborder Infrastructure Projects in Asia
This paper examines a range of cross-border infrastructure development issues relevant to Asian countries. It also states that, given the huge infrastructure investment needs of the region and insufficient government resources, the role of the private sector and public–private partnerships in enhancing infrastructure facilities in Asia is crucial.
(Prabir De, Muthi Samudram, Sanjeev Moholkar / ADB Institute)
Sep 2010Energy, Transport, Trade FacilitationWorking papers
Estimating Demand for Infrastructure in Energy, Transport, Telecommunications, Water and Sanitation in Asia and the Pacific: 2010-2020
This paper estimates the need for infrastructure investment, including energy, transport, telecommunications, water, and sanitation during 2010–2020, to meet growing demand for services and facilitate further rapid growth in the region. The estimates show that developing countries in Asia require financing of $776 billion per year for national and regional infrastructure.
(Biswa Nath Bhattacharyay / ADB Institute)
Sep 2010Energy, TransportWorking papers
Financing Asia’s Infrastructure: Modes of Development and Integration of Asian Financial Markets
This paper explores issues and challenges in financing infrastructure for seamless Asian infrastructure connectivity and for other high priority development financing needs. It also seeks methods and instruments to help direct Asian and international resources to cost-effectively and efficiently support infrastructure and other development needs.
(Biswa Bhattacharyay / ADB Institute)
Jul 2010Transport, EnergyWorking papers
Critical Evaluation of Cross-Border Infrastructure Projects in Asia
This paper attempts to fill gaps faced by policy makers and practitioners in the evaluation of cross-border infrastructure projects. It first defines what constitutes cross-border infrastructure projects, and then outlines an analytical framework and criteria to evaluate them. It also reports on emerging impact patterns evidenced in relevant studies. The paper draws lessons and implications for design and implementation of cross-border infrastructure projects – among them are CAREC projects.
(Manabu Fujimura, Ramesh Adhikari / ADBI)
Jul 2010Transport, Energy, Regional CooperationWorking papers
ADB's Contribution to Inclusive Growth in Transport and Energy Projects
This paper proposes a methodology for assessing inclusive growth contributions of the Asian Development Bank in economic infrastructure projects. It applies the methodology to 8 energy and 10 transport projects of various subsectors and key activity areas.
(Stein Hansen / ADB)
Jun 2010Transport, EnergyWorking papers
Strategic Water Resources in Central Asia: In search of a new international legal order
This paper describes the basic problem and the efforts undertaken by Central Asia's states and the international community to seek a resolution on the allocation and use of the region's water resources. It traces recent developments relating to the planned construction of dams, the modification of energy supplies, and the periodic issue of statements from the governments. Finally, it looks into the challenge for establishing a modern international legal order to govern the region's strategic water resources.
(Stephen Hodgson / EU-Central Asia Monitoring)
May 2010EnergyBriefs and notes
Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation: Good Neighbors, Good Partners, Good Prospects | РУССКИЙ | 中文
This brochure gives an overview of the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Program. It briefly explains the program, its structure, its comprehensive action plan, the four priority sectors (transport, trade facilitation, trade policy, and energy), and its other initiatives.
Apr 2010Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, Energy, Regional CooperationOthers
Statistical Yearbook for Asia and the Pacific 2009
The third edition of the revised Statistical Yearbook is an authoritative reference on the social, economic, and environmental development of Asia and the Pacific since 1990. Through more than 200 key internationally comparable indicators, it compares Asia and the Pacific with the world average and other regions, including Africa, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean and North America. It includes 128 reader-friendly charts and descriptive texts on 30 development topics.
Mar 2010Economy, Transport, EnergyBooks
Lights Out: The Outlook for Energy in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union | РУССКИЙ
This report analyzes the outlook for energy demand and supply in Europe and Central Asia. It estimates the investment requirements and highlights the potential environmental concerns associated with meeting future energy needs, including those related to climate change. The report also proposes the actions necessary to create an attractive environment for investment in cleaner energy. Greater regional cooperation for smart energy and climate action is an important part of the World Bank’s engagement in the region. (Overview is available in Russian.)
(World Bank)
Mar 2010EnergyResearch and reports
Reconnecting India and Central Asia: Emerging Security and Economic Dimensions
This volume presents an overview of the emerging and deepening relations between India and Central Asia in both the political and economic fields. The stability and security of Central Asia is of prime importance for India. India has been active mainly in infrastructure, trade, education, health, and technology in the region. Conversely, India’s increasing need for energy can be addressed by the energy-rich Central Asian countries, while improved transport networks could provide a boost to continental trade across the region.
(Nirmala Joshi (ed.) / Central Asia-Caucasus Institute & Silk Road Studies Program)
Mar 2010Transport, Energy, Regional CooperationResearch and reports
Energy Emergency in Kyrgyzstan: Causes and Consequences
The energy shortage in the Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan has deteriorated recently. Heavily dependent on hydro resources but their outdated and barely functional energy infrastructure has had to face a number of environmental challenges. This policy brief focuses on the root causes of the energy crisis in the Kyrgyz Republic, assessing its implications for the wider region and looking at the role the European Union to improve the situation.
(Shairbek Juraev / EU-Central Asia Monitoring)
Feb 2010EnergyBriefs and notes
Energy Outlook for Asia and the Pacific
The publication aims to estimate, for each of the regional members of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the future demand for energy, supply options to 2030 for a business-as-usual scenario, investment requirements for meeting this demand, and the resulting CO2 emissions potential associated with increasing energy demand.
Oct 2009EnergyResearch and reports
Energy Statistics in Asia and the Pacific (1990-2006)
The publication attempts to consolidate energy statistics of the 48 ADB regional members in Asia and the Pacific. It provides insights on the recent energy situation of the region and provides information for stakeholders inside and outside the region to chart their future course of action in planning for energy investment, inclusive and sustainable development and poverty alleviation.
Oct 2009EnergyResearch and reports
Energy is Life: Bringing Power to Afghanistan
The publication reports on ADB's assistance to Afghanistan to strengthen the North East Power System and bring power to Kabul along a newly constructed transmission line from neighboring Uzbekistan. For the first time in more than a generation, the majority of the capital's 4 million people can now enjoy the benefits of power.
Oct 2009EnergyResearch and reports
Investment Guide to the Silk Road | 中文
This publication gives comprehensive introductory information about the investment climate and opportunities in the Silk Road region. Its primary goal is to encourage potential investors to explore in more detail their own ideas for possible regional investment projects.
Sep 2009Regional Cooperation, Transport, Trade Facilitation, Energy, Private SectorBooks
The EU and Central Asia: Commercialising the Energy Relationship
This paper aims to review the European Union's current energy needs and establish the role that Central Asia might play in helping to meet them. Central Asia will be an important component of the southern corridor project, which consists of two gas pipeline projects. The focus of interaction will be on gas and on Turkmenistan, as a supplementary supplier to the projected Nabucco pipeline. Such a project will increase the commercial and geopolitical options, and presumably the market power, of Central Asian exporters themselves.
(Michael Denison / EU-Central Asia Monitoring)
Jul 2009EnergyWorking papers
Development of Small-Scale Non-Hydro Off-Grid Renewable Energy Systems in Tajikistan
The study describes the context of renewable energy and the available technologies in Tajikistan. The report also discusses the organizational dynamics between the main players in the field. The recommendations are based on interviews with stakeholders of the renewable energy market, such as energy experts, businesspeople, and representatives of international organizations.
(Bogdan Prokopovych / University of Rhode Island)
Mar 2009EnergyResearch and reports
Eurasian Energy Security
This policy brief, Council Special Report No. 43, illustrates the need for a coherent European energy policy and argues that the ongoing financial crisis provides a unique opportunity to tackle the issue. At the same time, it recognizes that European dependence on Russian energy will be a reality well into the future and that Europe can increase its energy security only by working with - not against - the Russian Federation.
(Jeffrey Mankoff / Council on Foreign Relations)
Feb 2009EnergyBriefs and notes
Central Asia Regional Risk Assessment
The report discusses ways by which the governments of Central Asia can prepare for, and manage, the compound threats to water, energy and food security.
Jan 2009EnergyResearch and reports
Caucasus Transport Corridor for Oil and Oil Products
This study evaluates the potential demand for transport of oil and oil products via the existing rail corridor in the Caucasus, taking into consideration the competition from alternative routes. It identifies potential bottlenecks that would prevent potential traffic from using the corridor and proposes solutions for physical and operational improvements to the corridor needed to attract potential traffic.
(World Bank)
Dec 2008Energy, TransportResearch and reports
Trade Elasticities in the Middle East and Central Asia: What is the Role of Oil?
This paper examines the potential role a substantial real appreciation of the currencies of oil-exporting countries in the Middle East and Central Asia, could play in moderating these countries' current account surpluses and, in the process, contribute to a narrowing of global imbalances.
(Dalia Hakura, Andreas Billmeier / IMF)
Sep 2008Energy, Trade Policy, EconomyWorking papers
The CIS Common Electric Power Market
This sector report looks at the opportunities and integration initiatives in creating a common electric power market among member countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) as well as of the Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC).
(Evgeny Vinokurov / Eurasian Development Bank)
Aug 2008Energy, Regional CooperationResearch and reports
The Determinants of Performance in Building Infrastructure in Transition Economies
This paper investigates how contract specificities affect the performance of municipal infrastructure projects in transportation, district heating, water, waste water and solid waste. Using data from EBRD-financed projects, the paper looks at the effect of involving private parties with different degrees of risk, and involving public parties other than the respective municipality.
(Gabriela Dobrescu, Guido Friebel, Pauline Grosjean, and Katrin Robeck / EBRD)
Jun 2008Transport, Energy, Economy, Private SectorWorking papers
Whose Rules Rule? Everyday Border and Water Conflicts in Central Asia
The aim of this study is to provide an operationally relevant regional study of the key cross-border conflict issues that affect communities in Central Asia and the ways in which these conflicts are mitigated.
(Kathleen Kuehnast, Nora Dudwick, Mari Clarke, Anna O'Donnell, Sheetal Rana / World Bank)
May 2008Trade Policy, Energy, Regional CooperationWorking papers
Securing Sustainable Energy in Transition Economies
This brochure underscores that there is significant scope to reduce the carbon footprint of the energy sector in the transition region. It also introduces a new monitoring tool, the Index of Sustainable Energy, which allows policymakers to benchmark individual countries' progress in energy reform.
Apr 2008EnergyOthers
Development and Transition, 9th issue, "Energy and the Environment"
The ninth issue of the Development and Transition newsletter focuses on questions of energy and the environment in Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. The issue discusses, among others, land degradation in Central Asia, reforestation in Uzbekistan, and potential floods in Tajikistan.
Apr 2008Energy, OthersOthers
Water and Energy Resources in Central Asia: Utilization and Development Issues
This sector report discusses resolving the issues of shared utilization of water and power resources in Central Asia and the management of water and energy resources and leverage of significant long-term investment in hydro energy projects.
(Eurasian Development Bank)
Apr 2008EnergyResearch and reports
Nuclear Energy Complexes in Russia and Kazakhstan: Prospects for Development and Cooperation
This industry report recommends to integrate the nuclear power complexes of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation along the entire production chain as a logical response to their urgent need to reduce their energy deficit, and to the synergies which exist between their production capacities and technologies at each stage of the nuclear fuel production chain.
(Evgeny Vinokurov / Eurasian Development Bank)
Apr 2008EnergyResearch and reports
Kazakhstan: The Road to Independence - Energy Policy and the Birth of a Nation
This publication reviews the development and future prospects of independent Kazakhstan and explores its politics and the national economy, with particular attention to the energy sector. It also reviews the country’s oil, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear industries in detail.
(Ariel Cohen / Central Asia–Caucaus Institute and Silk Road Studies Program)
2008Economy, EnergyBooks
Strategy for Regional Cooperation in the Energy Sector of CAREC Countries | РУССКИЙ
The strategy seeks to enable the development of best solutions to meet future energy demand and promote development of new energy resources for the CAREC region and for exports by exploiting the potential for mutually beneficial gains among the participating countries.
2008Energy, Regional CooperationOthers
Integrating Environment in Key Economic Sectors in Europe and Central Asia
This paper examines the trade-offs involved in environmental mainstreaming, drawing upon experience from World Bank lending operations over the past 15 years to explore how the trade-offs and challenges have been handled and also where mainstreaming has been more and less successful, and why. It reviews operations in five economic sectors which are particularly significant in terms of their potential environmental impacts and the urgency of integrating environmental sustainability in policies and programs: energy, extractive industries, transport, agriculture, and forest management.
(A. Kiss, R. Cestti, J. Ebinger, A. Eftimie, A. Mirzagalyamova, A. Delarue, E. Montanari Stephens, D. Kapanadze / World Bank)
Sep 2007EnergyResearch and reports
The Economic Aspects of the Chinese–Central Asia Rapprochement
This paper analyzes the development of the People’s Republic of China's (PRC) economic engagement with Central Asia. Although the commercial exchanges between the PRC and Central Asia are still in their infancy, they already show a lot of promise and have burgeoned over the last few years: between 2002 and 2005, the volume of trade between the two zones tripled. For landlocked Central Asia, the PRC is thus destined to play a major role in the 21st century in opening up the region.
(Sébastien Peyrous / Central Asia-Caucasus Institute & Silk Road Studies Program)
Sep 2007Energy, Regional Cooperation, Trade Facilitation, EconomyResearch and reports
Private Participation in Infrastructure in Europe and Central Asia—A Look at Recent Trends
This issue of Gridlines examines recent trends in private participation in infrastructure projects in Europe and Central Asia. In 2005, investment commitments to infrastructure projects, with private participation in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, reached $35 billion.
(Maria Vagliasindi, Ada Karina Izaguirre / Public–Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility)
Aug 2007Energy, TransportBriefs and notes
Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC): Good Neighbors, Good Partners, Good Prospects | РУССКИЙ
This brochure explains the CAREC Program, its overall institutional framework, strategic action plans, and recent investments in the priority areas of transport, energy, trade facilitation, and trade policy.
Mar 2007Regional Cooperation, Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyOthers
People and Power: Electricity Sector Reforms and the Poor in Europe and Central Asia
This book brings together a series of studies conducted to find out more about the distributional impacts of electricity sector reforms in the Europe and Central Asia region between 1999 and 2004. It aims to provide insights into how household consumption and expenditure change in response to reform and what happens to payment levels, coping mechanisms used by households, and service quality improvements. It looks at the main strategies used by policy makers to mitigate the impact of reform and assesses the efficacy of these strategies in different settings.
(Julian A. Lampietti, Sudeshna Ghosh Banerjee, Amelia Branczik / World Bank)
Nov 2006EnergyBooks
Lessons of Experience Series: The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline Project
This paper discusses lessons learned in the design and construction phase of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline project that transports crude oil from Caspian Sea to Mediterranean Sea, running through Azerbaijan and Georgia to a terminal facility at Ceyhan on the Turkish Mediterranean coast.
(Debra Sequeira, Richard Wybess, Ted Pollett / IFC)
Sep 2006EnergyWorking papers
Infrastructure in Europe and Central Asia Region: Approaches to Sustainable Services
This report presents an overview of the key developments in the energy and infrastructure sector of the countries in Europe and Central Asia region. It attempts to identify the critical factors for success in the provision of services of acceptable quality and reliability on a sustainable basis.
(World Bank)
Jun 2006Transport, Energy, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
The New Impetus towards Economic Integration between Europe and Asia
With the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union the large economic space of the Eurasian super-continent has also become part of the world-wide globalization process. How this process of integration of Eurasia is proceeding in key areas of crosscontinental linkages is of great importance for the future of the region and for the future of the world as a whole. One of the key questions will be whether the regional and global institutions can provide adequate support for this integration process.
(Johannes Linn, David Tiomkin / Asia Europe Journal, 2006, Vol.4, No. 1)
Apr 2006Regional Cooperation, EnergyJournal articles
Quasi-Fiscal Deficits and Energy Conditionality in Selected CIS Countries
Quasi-fiscal deficits of public utility companies constitute a significant impediment to efficient resource allocation and endanger macroeconomic stability. This paper presents a simple framework for measuring and monitoring such deficits and highlights their macroeconomic relevance.
(Tapio Saavalainen, Joy ten berge / IMF)
Feb 2006Energy, Economy, FinanceWorking papers
Prospects for the Electricity and Coal Sectors in Transition Countries
The paper reviews the prospects for the electricity and coal sectors in transition countries in the context of overall growth in demand for primary energy. Much of this paper also focuses on examining the consequences of the shift in relative fuel prices especially against the background of a revival of growth in demand for all sources of energy and for electricity in particular.
(Gordon Hughes / EBRD)
Dec 2005EnergyResearch and reports
Uzbekistan Energy Efficiency in Urban Water Utilities in Central Asia
This study evaluates Energy Efficiency in Urban Water Utilities to test the common assumption that there existed an enormous energy reduction potential in the water utilities in the former Soviet Union and more specifically in Central Asia. The study focused on the historic cities of Samarkand and Bukhara in Uzbekistan.
(Ede Jorge Ijjaz-Vasquez / World Bank)
Oct 2005EnergyResearch and reports
The Oil and Gas Sector in Transition: Challenges and the Role of the EBRD - Energy Operations Policy
This background report focuses on issues in the oil and gas sectors of transitional economies, covering the upstream (exploration and production), midstream (refining and transportation) and downstream (distribution and consumption). It focuses on the challenges and opportunities in the oil and gas sector, and the potential role of the EBRD as a private sector-oriented, project-based financial institution.
(Julian Lee / EBRD)
May 2005EnergyResearch and reports
Azerbaijan: Issues and Options Associated with Energy Sector Reform
This report outlines the issues and options facing Azerbaijan as it develops and implements its agenda for reform of the energy sector. The report focuses on seven key topics: oil revenue management, petroleum sector, gas sector, power sector, regulatory environment, energy and the environment, and social issues in the energy sector.
(World Bank)
Mar 2005EnergyStudies and research
Regional Cooperation of the CIS7: Past Experience and Options for the Future
The paper aims to present a framework for the analysis of regional cooperation, which will allow for the analysis of the reasons behind limited effectiveness of the existing arrangements and the incentives to improve their implementation.
(Maryla Maliszewska / World Bank)
Jan 2005Energy, Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, Regional CooperationWorking papers
Central Asia Human Development Report: Bringing Down Barriers | РУССКИЙ
This report shows how governments, business, civil society and communities can come together in many different areas to create greater opportunities for human development and human security in the region.
2005Regional Cooperation, Trade Policy, Trade Facilitation, EnergyResearch and reports
Electricity Sectors in CAREC Member Countries: A Diagnostic Review of Regulatory Approaches and Challenges
The priority of the CAREC Program in the energy sector is to promote efficient and rational use of energy within the region. This study assesses the regulatory approaches and challenges in the electricity sectors of Azerbaijan, People’s Republic of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Mongolia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.
2005EnergyResearch and reports
Central Asia: Regional Electricity Export Potential Study
This study identifies the potential for electricity exports outside Central Asia and also the impediments that need to be addressed to realize such potential; and assesses how the region's economies meet their own future requirements for electricity.
(World Bank)
Dec 2004EnergyResearch and reports
Power's Promise: Electricity Reforms in Eastern Europe and Central Asia
This study analyzes the fiscal, efficiency, social, and environmental impact of power sector reforms in seven countries—Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Moldova, and Poland—in Europe and Central Asia. It aims to improve understanding of the link between sector reform and fiscal outcomes, and how to better monitor the fiscal and efficiency impacts of reform. It also suggests how to design better strategies to mitigate the impact of reform on the poor and the environment.
(Julian Lampietti / World Bank)
Jun 2004EnergyWorking papers
Infrastructure Regulation: Models for Developing Asia
Many governments hope to fund infrastructure expansions with new private sector investment. Relying on private funding requires a good regulatory system to protect both users and investors. This paper surveys both the theory and practice of infrastructure regulation. It distinguishes between price cap and rate of return methods of regulation and considers case studies from particular sectors. A sound regulatory system is found to be an essential element for development.
(Colin Kirkpatrick, David Parker / ADB Institute)
May 2004Energy, Private SectorWorking papers
Water Energy Nexus in Central Asia: Improving Regional Cooperation in the Syr Darya Basin
This report seeks to review the regional cooperation efforts in the water and energy sectors pursued by the Central Asian Republics during the 1990s in the Syr Darya river basin, identify the reasons for the problems encountered, and suggest an approach to make the cooperation more reliable, sustainable and equitably beneficial to all parties concerned.
(World Bank)
Jan 2004Energy, Regional CooperationResearch and reports
Power sector regulatory reform in transition economies: Progress and lessons learned
This paper discusses the progress made in regulatory reform in the power sector of most transition economies. Further reform is required to secure power tariff increases and private sector participation.
(David Kennedy / EBRD)
Feb 2003Energy, Private SectorWorking papers
Cross-Border Issues in Energy Trade in the CIS Countries
This paper explores from a regional perspective the distorted nature of trade in energy products within the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries. It focuses on cross-border issues as an integral component of the wider problem of inefficient energy use within CIS.
(John R. Dodsworth, Paul Henri Mathieu, Clinton R. Shiells / IMF)
Dec 2002Energy, Trade FacilitationWorking papers
The Study on Water and Energy Nexus in Central Asia
This study provides an analytical basis for the Asian Development Bank to formulate a regional strategy of timely assistance in the Aral Sea Basin of Central Asia, focusing on the inter-linkage between water use management and energy trade with an action plan for the short to medium term.
(J. Michael Biddison / ADB)
Aug 2002EnergyResearch and reports
The Energy Intensity of Transition Countries
The economies of central and eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union have traditionally been very energy intensive. The paper shows that energy prices and progress in enterprise restructuring are the two most important drivers for more efficient energy use.
(Jan Cornillie, Samuel Fankhauser / EBRD)
Jun 2002EnergyWorking papers
Energy Sector Quasi-Fiscal Activities in the Countries of the Former Soviet Union
This paper analyses the continuing use of energy sector quasi-fiscal activities to provide large implicit and untargeted subsidies on such activities in former Soviet Union countries, especially in Azerbaijan and Ukraine. These activities disguise the overall size of the government, cause overconsumption and waste, and contribute to macroeconomic imbalances.
(Martin Petri, Gunther Taube, Aleh Tsyvinski / IMF)
May 2002Economy, Finance, EnergyWorking papers
Nature's Blessing or Nature's Curse: The Political Economy of Transition in Resource-based Economies
This paper looks back over the first decade of independence of former Soviet republics and draws some lessons from the experience made to date. It focuses on the energy-rich states and contrasts their development to that in the resource-poor countries at the periphery of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
(Akram Esanov, Martin Raiser, Willem Buiter / EBRD)
Nov 2001Economy, EnergyWorking papers
Cleaner Transport Fuels for Cleaner Air in Central Asia and the Caucasus
The World Bank undertook a regional study on cleaner transport fuels for urban quality improvement in the region, recognizing that fuel quality improvements should be linked to broader air quality management, to ensure cost-effectiveness, and in addressing these issues, it is therefore possible to build on economies of scale, avoid duplications, allow the transfer of experience, and facilitate intra-regional trade in petroleum products. This leads to this study's observations and recommendations.
(Joint UNDP/World Bank ESMAP)
Aug 2001Transport, EnergyResearch and reports
Rebuilding the Silk Road—Encouraging Economic Cooperation in Central Asia: The Role of the Asian Development Bank
This brochure presents an overview of the opportunities of and challenges to economic cooperation in the Central Asia region and the Asian Development Bank's (ADB) regional program in support of this. It highlights the three priority areas of ADB's initiative, namely: energy, trade, and transport.
2001Regional Cooperation, Transport, Trade Facilitation, EnergyOthers
Electric Energy: Final Report
This report, a product of RETA 5818 (Phase II): Regional Economic Cooperation in Central Asia, discusses the current electricity pool of Central Asia (particularly for Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan) and proposes project for the rehabilitation and uprating of the Central Asia power system operation.
(Lahmeyer International / ADB)
Dec 2000EnergyResearch and reports
Challenges and Opportunities in Energy: Second Workshop on Economic Cooperation in Central Asia
This publication is a compilation of papers and presentations on energy. It features transport status in CAREC participating countries, investment needs, and financing potentials of energy projects.
(David Jay Green (ed.) / ADB)
Kazakhstan: Natural Gas Investment Strategy Study (Volume 1 of 3, Executive Summary and Main Text)
This paper discusses the challenge to Kazakhstan on how best to exploit its gas resource base and ensure that its gas resources deliver the maximum potential benefits to the country's economy. This paper also explores a strategic path to (i) ensure that gas sector development maximizes the economic benefit of liquids production, (ii) restore the commercial viability of Kazakh gas operations, and (iii) establish a position as a supplier of gas to the international market.
(ESMAP / World Bank)
Dec 1997EnergyResearch and reports
Kazakhstan: Natural Gas Investment Strategy Study (Volume 2 of 3, Appendices 1 through 3)
This paper discusses the challenge to Kazakhstan on how best to exploit its gas resource base and ensure that its gas resources deliver the maximum potential benefits to the country's economy. Appendices 1 to 3 cover gas pipeline projects, gas reserves, and supply and demand information.
(ESMAP / World Bank)
Dec 1997EnergyResearch and reports
Kazakhstan: Natural Gas Investment Strategy Study (Volume 3 of 3, Appendices 4 through 6)
This paper discusses the challenge to Kazakhstan on how best to exploit its gas resource base and ensure that its gas resources deliver the maximum potential benefits to the country's economy. Appendices 4 to 6 cover potential gas markets in Europe, gas regulatory framework and principles, and financing and resourcing.
(ESMAP / World Bank)
Dec 1997EnergyResearch and reports
Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan: Opportunities for Renewable Energy Development
The study performs a preliminary assessment of the renewable energy (RE) resources in Kazakhstan and the Kyrgyz Republic, and identifies the resources most promising for development in each country. The study also takes a regional approach to market development, examining the possibility of joint development and of marketing RE systems in the region's countries.
(ESMAP / World Bank)
Nov 1997EnergyResearch and reports
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