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CAREC 2030: Connecting the Region for Shared and Sustainable Development | РУССКИЙ
CAREC 2030 builds on the solid foundation of progress made under CAREC 2020, and provides the new long-term strategic framework for the CAREC Program leading to 2030. CAREC 2030 is aligned with national strategies and with the 2030 global development agenda.
Oct 2017Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
Europe and Central Asia Economic Update
The report finds that policies focused on improving trade in Europe and Central Asia are crucial for building on this modest growth.
(World Bank)
May 2017Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Why Trade Finance Gaps Persist: Does it Matter for Trade and Development?
Trade finance shortfalls now appear regularly. Does this matter for trade expansion and economic development in developing countries?
Mar 2017Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyWorking papers
Can Trade Help Achieve the Employment Targets of the Sustainable Development Goals?
The theoretical and empirical links between trade and employment are examined to suggest whether trade has a positive or negative impact on the quantity and quality of employment.
Jan 2017Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyWorking papers
Trade, Infrastructure, and Development
This paper surveys the literature on trade and development, especially on complementarities associated with trade infrastructure.
Dec 2016Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyWorking papers
CAREC Development Effectiveness Review 2015 | РУССКИЙ
This CAREC Program Development Effectiveness Review is the sixth annual consolidated picture of progress made by country and multilateral institution partners of CAREC toward economic development through regional cooperation. It measures the performance of CAREC projects and initiatives in transport, trade, and energy during 2015; highlights achievements; identifies areas for improvement; and proposes actions to meet emerging challenges and assist in strategic decision making.
Oct 2016Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
CAREC 2020 Midterm Review | РУССКИЙ
The purpose of the Mid-Term Review (MTR) is to review the relevance and responsiveness of CAREC 2020, including implementation performance, results achieved and the effectiveness of the CAREC institutions; to draw lessons from the experience gained in the first five years of the strategy; and to propose refinements and strategies moving forward.
Oct 2016Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
CAREC Development Effectiveness Review 2014 | РУССКИЙ
This brochure summarizes what CAREC achieved during 2014 and what its priorities are for 2015 and beyond. Total investments reached around $24.6 billion in 156 projects by the end of 2014.
Jan 2016Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
From Landlocked to Linked In: The Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program | РУССКИЙ
This publication discusses the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program as a partnership of 10 countries supported by six multilateral institutions. The program invests in regional infrastructure and initiatives to promote connectivity and trade, helping the mostly landlocked countries reach out to global markets. The deepening regional trade links are also opening up previously unexploited resources, including huge energy resources.
Sep 2015Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, Energy, Regional CooperationCAREC Publications
Kazakhstan Trade Report : Improving the Trade Policy Framework
This report is composed of three policy notes that discuss how to improve the trade policy framework, management, and regulations in Kazakhstan.
(World Bank)
Jun 2015Trade PolicyResearch and reports
CAREC Development Effectiveness Review 2013: A Refined Perspective | РУССКИЙ
This review measures the performance of CAREC projects and initiatives in transport, trade, and energy during 2013; highlights achievements; identifies areas for improvement; and proposes actions to meet emerging challenges and assist in strategic decision making.
Nov 2014Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
CAREC Development Effectiveness Review (DEfR) 2013: A Refined Perspective | РУССКИЙ
This DEfR is the fifth annual consolidated picture of progress made by country and multilateral institution partners of CAREC toward economic development through regional cooperation. This brochure provides a snapshot of the CAREC Program's progress in 2013.
Oct 2014Transport, Trade Facilitation, Energy, Trade PolicyCAREC Publications
Analysis of Informal Obstacles to Cross-Border Economic Activity in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan
Analyzes trade barriers in manufacturing, transport, and agriculture, which are key industries that experience different types of restrictions and varying degrees of state intervention in both countries.
(Vakulchuk, Roman; Irnazarov, Farrukh / ADB)
May 2014Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyWorking Papers
Regulatory Assessment Toolkit: A Practical Methodology for Assessing Regulation on Trade and Investment in Services
Provides guidance on how to assess and reform the regulatory policies of service trade industries. The toolkit can help government officials evaluate whether their regulatory framework addresses market failures, achieves public interest goals in an efficient manner, and promotes the development of an efficient domestic services market.
(Martin Molinuevo and Sebastian Sáez / WB)
Mar 2014Trade PolicyBooks
CAREC in Tajikistan: Building a Global Future | РУССКИЙ
Tajikistan is committed to expanding mutually beneficial economic cooperation with all countries and has actively participated in the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Program since 1998. CAREC seeks to boost the country’s prosperity by increasing access to trade and transport services and supporting the expansion of the energy sector.
Jan 2014Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
CAREC Development Effectiveness Review 2012: Implementing CAREC 2020 – Vision and Action (Brochure) | РУССКИЙ
A snapshot of the CAREC Program's progress in 2012.
Oct 2013Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
CAREC Development Effectiveness Review 2012: Implementing CAREC 2020 – Vision and Action | РУССКИЙ
This CAREC DeFR is the fourth annual consolidated picture of progress made by country and multilateral institution partners of CAREC toward economic development through regional cooperation. It measures the performance of CAREC projects and initiatives in transport, trade, and energy during 2012; highlights achievements; identifies areas for improvement; and proposes actions to meet emerging challenges and assist in strategic decision making.
Sep 2013Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
Trade policy barriers: an obstacle to export diversification in Eurasia
Analyzes trade policy barriers in Eurasia, East Asia and the Pacific, and the European Union using the most recent data from sources including the World Trade Organization, the United Nations, and the World Bank.
(World Bank)
May 2013Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Uncertainty and Trade Agreements
This paper explores the potential gains that a trade agreement can provide by regulating trade-policy uncertainty, in addition to the more standard gains from reducing the mean levels of trade barriers.
(Nuno Limao and Giovanni Maggi / NBER)
Jan 2013Trade PolicyWorking papers
10 Things the WTO Can Do
This booklet explains briefly the complex and dynamic nature of trade and the World Trade Organization's (WTO) trade rules. It highlights benefits of the trading system.
(World Trade Organization)
Sep 2012Trade PolicyOthers
Impact of Services Liberalization on Industry Productivity, Exports and Development: Six Empirical Studies in the Transition Economies
This paper summarizes six of the seven studies that investigate the impact of services liberalization on productivity, focusing on services reform in the transition economies of Europe and Central Asia. The studies contribute to the growing empirical literature establishing that liberalization of barriers against service providers can make an important contribution to increasing total factor productivity, exports and growth in the economy.
(David Tarr / World Bank Institute)
Apr 2012Trade PolicyWorking papers
CAREC 2020: A Strategic Framework for the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program 2011–2020 | РУССКИЙ
CAREC 2020 provides the strategic framework for the Program’s next 10 years. It reflects the required enhancements in the Comprehensive Action Plan to move the Program toward its vision of Good Partners, Good Neighbors, and Good Prospects.
Feb 2012Regional Cooperation, Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
A Practical Guide to Trade Policy Analysis
This publication outlines the major concepts of trade policy analysis and contains practical guidance on how to apply them to concrete policy questions. It is aimed at government experts engaged in trade negotiations, as well as students and researchers involved in trade-related study or research.
(World Trade Organization and United Nations Conference on Trade and Development)
2012Trade PolicyOthers
International Trade Statistics 2012
This publication presents a comprehensive overview of the latest developments in world trade. It covers the details of merchandise trade by product and trade in commercial services.
(World Trade Organization)
2012Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Trade Profiles 2012
This publication provides a country-by-country breakdown of trade flows and trade policy measures for WTO members and countries seeking to join the WTO. The data provided for each country includes basic economic indicators, trade policy indicators, merchandise trade flows, commercial trade flows, and industrial property indicators.
(World Trade Organization)
2012Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyResearch and reports
World Tariff Profiles 2012
This publication provides information on market access. The listing of the tariffs imposed by each WTO member on its imports is complemented with an analysis of the market access conditions it faces in its major export markets.
(World Trade Organization, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, and International Trade Centre)
2012Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyResearch and reports
[People's Republic of] China and the World Trading System
This paper looks at how to anchor the People's Republic of China (PRC) more fully into the multilateral trading system, and it sees two ways. The first is a new negotiating agenda that will include major issues of interest to the PRC and its trading partners. The second is new restraints on bilateralism and regionalism that will help preserve incentives for maintaining the current broadly non-discriminatory trading order.
(Aaditya Mattoo, Arvind Subramanian / World Bank)
Dec 2011Trade PolicyWorking papers
The New Silk Road: Ten Years of the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program
This commemorative book celebrates 10 years of productive collaboration under the CAREC Program. Under the Program, member countries have made significant gains in regional transport, energy infrastructure, and trade facilitation and policy. The spirit of trust and confidence that has evolved through the years among good neighbors and good partners has led to better prospects for all.
Dec 2011Regional Cooperation, Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
Impact Evaluation of Trade Interventions: Paving the Way
The focus of trade policy has shifted in recent years from economy-wide reductions in tariffs and trade restrictions toward targeted interventions to facilitate trade and promote exports. Most of these latter interventions are based on the new mantra of "aid-for-trade" rather than on hard evidence about what works and what does not. This paper discusses examples of impact evaluation using a range of methods (experimental and non-experimental), highlighting the particular issues and caveats arising in a trade context, and the valuable lessons that are already being learned.
(Olivier Cadot, Ana M. Fernandes, Julien Gourdon, Aaditya Mattoo / World Bank)
Nov 2011Trade PolicyWorking papers
World Trade Report 2011 - The WTO and preferential trade agreements: From co-existence to coherence
This edition describes the historical development of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) and the current landscape of agreements. It examines why PTAs are established, their economic effects, and the contents of the agreements themselves. Finally it considers the interaction between PTAs and the multilateral trading system.
(World Trade Organization)
Jul 2011Regional Cooperation, Trade PolicyResearch and reports
The Great Recession and Import Protection: The Role of Temporary Trade Barriers
This volume offers a collection of research that begins to fill a major information gap by providing empirical details of many of the important changes that took place under these trade policies (i.e., antidumping, safeguards, and countervailing duties) during 2008-2009.
(Chad P. Bown, ed / World Bank)
Jul 2011Trade PolicyBooks
Asia's Changing Role in World Trade: Prospects for South-South Trade Growth to 2030
This paper projects the world economy to 2030 to demonstrate the extent to which developing Asia's rapid economic growth is likely to (i) further shift the global industrial center of gravity away from the North Atlantic to Asia, (ii) increase the importance of Asia in world trade, and (iii) boost South-South trade. The South's share of world exports is projected to rise from 33% in 2004 to 55% in 2030–even higher if slower growth in the North is assumed, or if global trade is liberalized.
(Kym Anderson and Anna Strutt / ADB)
Jul 2011Trade PolicyWorking papers
Methodology for Impact Assessment of Free Trade Agreements
This publication presents several available methods to evaluate the impact of free trade agreements. It caters mainly to policy makers from developing countries and aims to equip them with economic knowledge and techniques necessary to conduct their own economic evaluation studies on existing or future agreements, or to critically re-examine the results of impact assessment studies conducted by others.
(Michael G. Plummer, David Cheong, Shintaro Hamanaka / ADB)
Feb 2011Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Intraregional Trade Costs in Asia: A Primer
While most Asian countries actively engage in bilateral or regional trade and economic integration initiatives, including trade facilitation or trade cost reduction programs or targets, little is known about the level of intraregional trade costs in Asia and to what extent these costs may have decreased over time. To address this knowledge gap, this paper estimates and analyzes intra- and extra-regional trade costs of 4 Asian subregions, namely Association of Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN), South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), North and Central Asia, and East and Northeast Asia.
(Trade and Investment Division / UNESCAP)
Jan 2011Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, Regional CooperationWorking papers
Proposals for WTO Reform: A Synthesis and Assessment
This paper summarizes the major arguments and proposals to reform the modus operandi of the World Trade Organization—including decision-making procedures, negotiating modalities, and dispute settlement.
(Bernard Hoekman / World Bank)
Jan 2011Trade PolicyWorking Papers
Unfinished Business? The WTO's Doha Agenda
This book examines the state and the fate of the Doha Development Agenda. The volume has three key objectives: to provide qualitative and quantitative information about the implications of what is currently on the table; to examine controversial areas where further progress might be made; and to identify lessons that might be of use for future negotiations.
(World Bank)
Jan 2011Trade PolicyBooks
Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Report 2010: Recent Trends and Developments
This edition (i) discusses recent trends in merchandise trade flows of selected countries and country-groups; (ii) comprehensively analyzes recent trends in commercial services trade in the region, providing an up-to-date breakdown of services trade for different subregions and services sectors; (iii) focuses on recent developments in foreign direct investment (FDI) in and from the region and explains why some economies attract more FDI than others; (iv) estimates the costs of trade for Asia and the Pacific utilizing a new database developed by UNESCAP; (v) details recent developments in regional trade agreements and provides relevant statistics on merchandise trade covered by these agreements; and (vi) gives an overview of protectionist measures that announced or implemented since November 2008.
(Trade and Investment Division / UNESCAP)
Dec 2010Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EconomyBooks
Trade and Institutional Environment: The International Experience and a Proposed Agenda of Measures | РУССКИЙ
This paper was prepared for the CAREC Trade Policy Coordinating Committee and examines the relationship between institutions and trade expansion in CAREC countries. It begins by reviewing the most recent developments of the global crisis and their potential consequences for developing countries' exports. Then it summarizes the current consensus in the economic literature on the relation between the quality of institutions and trade. The third section focuses on the trade-related institutional environment in CAREC countries. The last section proposes a list of broad measures to improve the trade-related institutional environment.
(Oleh Havrylyshyn / CAREC Secretariat)
Oct 2010Trade PolicyResearch and reports
The Impact of Free Trade Agreements on Business Activity: A Survey of Firms in the People's Republic of China
After its accession to the World Trade Organization in December 2001, the People's Republic of China adopted a regional approach to trade and began negotiating and implementing Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). This paper analyzes the results of a survey undertaken across 232 Chinese firms with regard to FTA-related issues such as utilization of trade agreements, perceived costs and benefits, perceptions of multiple rules of origin, and policy and institutional support mechanisms. It was found that, of the firms surveyed, 45% were to some extent using FTAs.
(Yunling Zhang / ADB Institute)
Oct 2010Trade Policy, Regional CooperationWorking papers
Reaching the MDGs: An Action Plan for Trade
Lack of integration into the global economy is a major factor in the continued underdevelopment of the poorest countries. The reasons for this include obstacles faced by exporters both abroad and at home: access to foreign markets is frequently limited by import barriers, while inadequate infrastructure and weak policies at home—including their own trade policies—often frustrate producers seeking to compete abroad. This paper outlines the 15-point action plan that can help achieve the Millennium Development Goals.
(Katrin Elborgh-Woytek, Rob Gregory, and Brad McDonald / IMF)
Sep 2010Trade Policy, PovertyBriefs and notes
World Trade Report 2010 – Trade in Natural Resources
This edition focuses on trade in natural resources, such as fuels, forestry, mining, and fisheries. It examines the characteristics of trade in natural resources, the policy choices available to governments and the role of international cooperation, particularly of the World Trade Organization, in the proper management of trade in this sector.
(World Trade Organization)
Jul 2010Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Achieving the Trade Targets of Millennium Development Goal 8: Status in the Least Developed Countries of Asia and the Pacific
This paper examines the progress in achieving the trade targets of Millennium Development Goal 8—“Building a global partnership for development”—with respect to the least developed countries (LDCs) of Asia and the Pacific. It concludes that while the market access commitments of the Hong Kong World Trade Organization’s Ministerial Declaration of 2005 have largely been met and LDCs of the Asia-Pacific benefit disproportionately from Aid for Trade, the overall share of LDC exports as a part of total world exports has not increased over the past decade.
(Trade and Investment Division / UNESCAP)
Jun 2010Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyWorking papers
Regional Trade Agreements
This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on regionalism. The formation of regional trade agreements has been, by far, the most popular form of reciprocal trade liberalization in the past 15 years. The discriminatory character of these agreements has raised three main concerns: that trade diversion would be rampant, because special interest groups would induce governments to form the most distortionary agreements; that broader external trade liberalization would stall or reverse; and that multilateralism could be undermined.
(Caroline Freund, Emanuel Ornelas / World Bank)
May 2010Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyWorking Papers
Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation: Good Neighbors, Good Partners, Good Prospects | РУССКИЙ | 中文
This brochure gives an overview of the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Program. It briefly explains the program, its structure, its comprehensive action plan, the four priority sectors (transport, trade facilitation, trade policy, and energy), and its other initiatives.
Apr 2010Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, Energy, Regional CooperationOthers
Conclude Doha: It Matters!
The Doha Round must be concluded not because it will produce dramatic liberalization but because it will create greater security of market access. Its conclusion would strengthen, symbolically and substantively, the World Trade Organization’s valuable role in restraining protectionism in the current downturn. Concluding Doha would create space for multilateral cooperation on critical policy matters that lie outside the Doha Agenda, most urgently the trade policy implications of climate change mitigation.
(Bernard Hoekman, Will Martin, Aaditya Mattoo / World Bank)
Nov 2009Trade PolicyResearch and reports
World Trade Report 2009 – Trade Policy Commitments and Contingency Measures
This edition examines the range of contingency measures available in trade agreements and the role that these measures play. Allowing governments a certain degree of flexibility within their trade commitments, these measures can be used to address circumstances that could not have been foreseen when a trade commitment was made. Contingency measures seek to strike a balance between commitments and flexibility.
(World Trade Organization)
Jul 2009Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Competition Provisions in Regional Trade Agreements: Lessons for [the People's Republic of] China
This policy note reviews the international experience with competition provisions in regional trade agreements. It draws some possible lessons for the People's Republic of China as it pursues its regional trade strategy.
(World Bank)
Jun 2009Trade PolicyBriefs and notes
Environmental Provisions in Regional Trade Agreements: Lessons for [the People's Republic of] China
This policy note identifies the main contours of the trade and environment debate in the context of regional trade agreements. With People's Republic of China’s high reliance on trade, it may be increasingly in its interest to proactively engage its partners on environmental issues in its regional trade agreement negotiations.
(World Bank)
Jun 2009Trade PolicyBriefs and notes
Labor Mobility Provisions in Regional Trade Agreements: Lessons for [the People's Republic of] China
This policy note sees regional trade agreements as a promising avenue to address cross-border labor mobility. Developing countries such as the People's Republic of China, which want to expand openness to include semi-skilled workers, may find broader regional trade agreement provisions are of interest.
(World Bank)
Jun 2009Trade PolicyBriefs and notes
Bazaars and Trade Integration in CAREC Countries | РУССКИЙ
This report examines the role of bazaars in Central Asia. It finds that bazaars (i) are large business associations with infrastructure facilitating both domestic and international trade; (ii) play a major role in regional and national chains of production and distribution; (iii) contribute to lower costs of trade and prices of goods, higher trade volumes, and improved welfare; (iv) contribute to poverty alleviation; and (v) are a source of very significant positive externalities, such as creating opportunities to develop logistic and marketing skills.
(World Bank)
May 2009Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Deepening Integration in Border Regions within CAREC: The Asiaregio | РУССКИЙ
This paper finds strong demand at the local level in Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, and Tajikistan for deeper cooperation, but significant differences in policy approaches to economic development and foreign trade among countries. Based on the experience with the Euroregios, the paper noted the importance of broadening cross-border arrangements beyond trade.
(World Bank)
May 2009Trade PolicyResearch and reports
The Asian "Noodle Bowl": Is It Serious for Business?
The paper provides new evidence from surveys of East Asian firms suggesting that the Asian noodle bowl of multiple overlapping free trade agreement (FTAs) does not seem to have severely harmed the region's business activity to date. However, as more currently under negotiation FTAs take effect and the complexity of the Asian noodle bowl increases, the business impact is likely to intensify. Implementation of key policies and closer public-private sector cooperation can help mitigate negative effects and facilitate a more small and medium enterprise inclusive business response to FTAs.
(Masahiro Kawai, Ganeshan Wignaraja / ADB Institute)
Apr 2009Trade Policy, Private SectorWorking papers
Afghanistan's Trade with CAREC Neighbors: Evidence from Surveys of Border Crossing Points in Hairatan and Sher Khan Bandar | РУССКИЙ
This report summarizes the results of surveys carried out on the Afghan side in May 2008 at two border crossing points (BCPs), Hairatan, linking Afghanistan and Uzbekistan, and Sher Khan Bandar, linking Afghanistan and Tajikistan. Since the bulk of trade with all CAREC members, except for Azerbaijan, People's Republic of China, and Mongolia, goes through these BCPs, they provide a good vantage point to gain a better understanding of this trade and constraints it faces.
(World Bank)
Oct 2008Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC): Legal Aspects of Regional Trade Integration
This paper recognizes the attributes of the Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC) as an international organization and discusses the legal foundations of the free trade regime and the customs union in EurAsEC. It also tackles issues related to the World Trade Organization (WTO), particularly the future accession of five EurAsEC members and the WTO-compatibility of the EurAsEC customs union.
(Sherzod Shadikhodjaev / Korea Institute for International Economic Policy)
Sep 2008Regional Cooperation, Trade PolicyWorking papers
Trade Elasticities in the Middle East and Central Asia: What is the Role of Oil?
This paper examines the potential role a substantial real appreciation of the currencies of oil-exporting countries in the Middle East and Central Asia, could play in moderating these countries' current account surpluses and, in the process, contribute to a narrowing of global imbalances.
(Dalia Hakura, Andreas Billmeier / IMF)
Sep 2008Energy, Trade Policy, EconomyWorking papers
World Trade Report 2008 – Trade in a Globalizing World
This edition addresses a range of interlinking questions, starting with a consideration of what constitutes globalization, what drives it, what benefits does it bring, what challenges does it pose and what role does trade play in this world of ever-growing interdependency. It asks why some countries have managed to take advantage of falling trade costs and greater policy-driven trading opportunities while others have remained largely outside international commercial relations.
(World Trade Organization)
Jul 2008Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Whose Rules Rule? Everyday Border and Water Conflicts in Central Asia
The aim of this study is to provide an operationally relevant regional study of the key cross-border conflict issues that affect communities in Central Asia and the ways in which these conflicts are mitigated.
(Kathleen Kuehnast, Nora Dudwick, Mari Clarke, Anna O'Donnell, Sheetal Rana / World Bank)
May 2008Trade Policy, Energy, Regional CooperationWorking papers
Regionalism and Trade Facilitation: A Primer
This paper investigates when trade facilitation reform should be undertaken at the regional level. The lessons are that regional trade agreements offer good prospects of comprehensive and effective reform and can effectively complement multilateral and national initiatives.
(Jean-Christophe Maur / World Bank)
Jan 2008Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, Regional CooperationWorking papers
Trade and Human Development: How to Conduct Trade Needs Assessments in Transition Economies | РУССКИЙ
This guide is designed to help policymakers, trade officials and researchers conduct needs assessment studies on trade and human development under the Aid for Trade initiative conceived at the 2005 World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference in Hong Kong. Despite the variations between countries and the challenges of linking trade and human development, it is possible to identify a number of analytical tools for conducting an assessment. The guide aims to show how this can be done with a focus on transition economies.
2008Trade Policy, Capacity DevelopmentResearch and reports
Trade Policy Strategic Action Plan | РУССКИЙ
This strategy aims to achieve a more open economy, a necessary step toward effective development and poverty reduction. Under this objective, the two main areas of action are to support efforts to achieve World Trade Organization membership and to simplify and liberalize the trade regime. The second objective is capacity building and knowledge transfer related to trade and trade policy.
2008Trade PolicyOthers
World Trade Report 2007 – Sixty Years of Multilateral Trading System: Achievements and Challenges
This edition reviews what the multilateral trading system has achieved in 6 decades and what remains to be done. It also provides brief analytical commentaries on certain topical trade issues, and looks at 10 years of the Information Technology Agreement and global imbalances and world trade
(World Trade Organization)
Dec 2007Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Regional Trade Integration in Central Asia: The way to modernize, attract investment and new technologies
The paper looks at regional implementation of trade facilitation measures and harmonization and implementation of free trade agreements among Central Asian countries to achieve regional trade integration.
(UNECE, UNESCAP / United Nations)
Nov 2007Trade Facilitation, Regional Cooperation, Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Quantitative Restrictions on Trade | РУССКИЙ
This paper assesses the current incidence of quantitative restrictions (QRs) in CAREC member countries. Licensing of imports or exports or the use of exchange controls have been concomitants of QRs. Increasingly the licensing rules have been allowed to fall into disuse as vehicles for quantitative regulation and their current applicability will not be exhaustively covered in this paper, although they remain a source of unnecessarily high trade costs.
(Richard Pomfret / ADB)
Sep 2007Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Cross-Border Trade within the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation
This report, based on surveys of cross-border trading conditions, profiles the key features of cross-border trade and its employment and income effects. Its focus lies in its analysis of the impact of government interventions that facilitate or impede cross-border trade by inter alia affecting the movement of local people, vehicles, and goods between the CAREC countries.
(World Bank)
Aug 2007Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Landlockedness, Infrastructure and Trade: New Estimates for Central Asian Countries
This paper assesses the impact of internal infrastructure and landlockedness on Central Asian trade. The findings highlight the need to pursue a dual policy agenda: first, transit corridors should be managed as regional public goods; second, the Central Asian countries should diversify their transit corridors to prevent monopoly positions and bottleneck points such as trans-shipment platforms.
(Christopher Grigoriou / World Bank)
Aug 2007Trade Facilitation, Transport, Trade PolicyWorking papers
Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC): Good Neighbors, Good Partners, Good Prospects | РУССКИЙ
This brochure explains the CAREC Program, its overall institutional framework, strategic action plans, and recent investments in the priority areas of transport, energy, trade facilitation, and trade policy.
Mar 2007Regional Cooperation, Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyOthers
World Trade Organization: Notes on the Content and Process - Handbook | РУССКИЙ
The Handbook explains the general principles and processes of the World Trade Organization. It elaborates on the significant decisions that have been made in past negotiations, specifically those that are relevant to the current negotiations launched by the Doha Ministerial Declaration in 2001.
(Bhagirath Lal Das / UNDP Regional Centre in Colombo)
Nov 2006Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Beyond Transition: Newsletter About Reforming Economies
The theme of this newsletter is how regional cooperation in Central Asia can help landlocked countries succeed. The articles are about World Trade Organization accession, regional cooperation in trade, economic performance of Central Asian countries, and other sectors such as education and health.
(World Bank)
Oct 2006Trade Policy, Regional Cooperation, Economy, PovertyOthers
Trade Taxes in CAREC Countries | РУССКИЙ
The paper analyzes the taxes levied on international trade in CAREC countries. The objective is to understand the nature and the scope of trade taxes in CAREC countries and assess to what extent they could be a barrier to trade. However, understanding overall trade developments in CAREC countries is not possible without examining non-tariff barriers and other policies affecting trade, which are outside the scope of this paper.
(Veronica Bacalu / ADB)
Sep 2006Trade PolicyResearch and reports
World Trade Report 2006 – Exploring the Links Between Subsidies, Trade and the WTO
This edition’s core topic is subsidies, exploring how subsidies are defined, what economic theory can tell us about subsidies, why governments use subsidies, the most prominent sectors in which subsidies are applied, and the role of the World Trade Organization Agreement in regulating subsidies in the context of international trade.
(World Trade Organization)
Jul 2006Trade PolicyResearch and reports
From Disintegration to Reintegration: Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union in International Trade | РУССКИЙ
This study analyzes the evolution of trade in 27 transition countries in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. It finds that most countries are better integrated into the global economy today than at any time since the Russian Revolution. To take full advantage of greater liberalization, countries must push ahead more strongly on domestic ("behind-the-border") reforms. (Overview in Russian)
(Harry G. Broadman / World Bank)
Feb 2006Economy, Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Comparative Advantage in International Trade for Central Asia
This paper aims to develop strategies for identifying the comparative advantage of Central Asian economies in international trade, given available information about factor prices and transport costs, historical production patterns, and recent trends in the geographical and product composition of Central Asian trade.
(Matthias Lücke, Jacek Rothert / World Bank)
Jan 2006Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Asia-Pacific Human Development Report 2006 - Trade on Human Terms: Transforming Trade for Human Development in Asia and the Pacific
The Report examines from an Asia-Pacific perspective the changes required in the world's trading system, as envisioned in the Global Partnership for Development and the Millennium Development Goals. It proposes a comprehensive development strategy that effectively combines trade liberalization with the promotion of poverty reduction and human development.
2006Economy, Poverty, Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Central Asia: Increasing Gains from Trade through Regional Cooperation in Trade Policy, Transport, and Customs Transit
This report seeks to show how Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan can increase the gains from participation in international trade through regional cooperation in trade policy, transport, and customs transit. It attempts to quantify costs of the lack of cooperation and potential benefits of improved regional cooperation in the three areas for the above countries.
2006Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, Transport, Regional CooperationResearch and reports
World Trade Report 2005 – Trade, Standards, and the WTO
This edition focuses on three key areas: (i) the economics of standards in relation to international trade; (ii) the institutional setting in which standard-setting and conformity assessment occurs; and (iii) the role of World Trade Organization agreements in reconciling the legitimate policy uses of standards with an open, non-discriminatory trading system. While much of the analysis deals with product standards, a large number of the issues discussed also apply in the field of services.
(World Trade Organization)
Jun 2005Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Regional Trade Integration and WTO Accession: Which is the Right Sequencing? An Application to the CIS
This paper analyzes the appropriate sequencing between accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the implementation of the Eurasian Economic Community customs union and whether the latter facilitates or delays WTO accession for some member countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
(Patrizia Tumbarello / IMF)
May 2005Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyWorking papers
Regional Cooperation of the CIS7: Past Experience and Options for the Future
The paper aims to present a framework for the analysis of regional cooperation, which will allow for the analysis of the reasons behind limited effectiveness of the existing arrangements and the incentives to improve their implementation.
(Maryla Maliszewska / World Bank)
Jan 2005Energy, Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, Regional CooperationWorking papers
Central Asia Human Development Report: Bringing Down Barriers | РУССКИЙ
This report shows how governments, business, civil society and communities can come together in many different areas to create greater opportunities for human development and human security in the region.
2005Regional Cooperation, Trade Policy, Trade Facilitation, EnergyResearch and reports
World Trade Report 2004 – Coherence
While trade policy can have a positive impact on a country’s growth and development prospects, this edition stresses the importance of ensuring coherence in policy formulation. It also examines the role of international cooperation in securing policy coherence.
(World Trade Organization)
Sep 2004Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Of Openness and Distance: Trade Developments in the Commonwealth of Independent States, 1993-2002
This paper analyzes developments in the structure of trade in the Commonwealth of Independent States during the transition decade, and finds that it changed less than in other transition economies.
(Katrin Elborgh-Woytek / IMF)
Oct 2003Trade Policy, Trade FacilitationWorking papers
World Trade Report 2003 – Trade and Development
The main topic of this edition is “development.” The report explains the origin of development and offers an analytical framework on the relationship between trade and devleopment. The report also extensively examines the Doha Round of global trade negotiations and states clearly that these talks hold significant potential for raising levels of development in impoverished countries.
(World Trade Organization)
Aug 2003Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Moving People to Deliver Services
This volume provides a comprehensive economic and legal analysis of key issues under the “temporary movement of individual service suppliers” of the General Agreement on Trade in Services. These issues include aging populations, shortages of skilled labor, social disruption in host countries, and brain drain from poor countries.
(Aaditya Mattoo and Antonia Carzaniga, eds. / World Bank)
Jun 2003Trade PolicyBooks
Uzbekistan: Trade and Trade Facilitation Review
The paper provides an overview of foreign trade between Uzbekistan and both Commonwealth of Independent States-7 and other countries, as a basis for assessing trade performance. It assesses the trade policy of Uzbekistan as a basis for recommending trade facilitation measures. It identifies (i) the strengths, weaknesses, and constraints of the private sector; (ii) key obstacles to trade facilitation in relation to hard and soft trade infrastructure; and (iii) key areas for trade facilitation and regional cooperation.
Jan 2003Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, Regional CooperationResearch and reports
Accession to the WTO: The Case of Turkmenistan
This background paper outlines the main obstacles to Turkmenistan's accession to the World Trade Organization and presents recommendations to help improve the country's prospect for membership.
(Mehrdad Haghayeghi / UNESCAP)
Jun 2001Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Trade Cooperation between Kazakhstan and the Kyrgyz Republic
This publication summarizes the discussions and recommendations at the Kazakhstan-Kyrgyz Republic Trade Cooperation Workshop held on 14 August 1998 in Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic. Among the topics included how the policy environment at the Kazakh-Kyrgyz border affects general trade, traffic, and economic cooperation; identifying any continuing policy impediments to trade; and promoting discussion of policy modifications that might address these problems.
May 1999Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyResearch and reports
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