All Studies
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Trade Facilitation and Better Connectivity for an Inclusive Asia and Pacific
This publication investigates the evolution of trade costs, and reviews the state of play of trade facilitation and paperless trade in Asia and the Pacific.
(ADB)
Sep 2017Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
The Almaty–Bishkek Economic Corridor | РУССКИЙ
The Almaty–Bishkek Economic Corridor, which emanated from the Almaty–Bishkek Corridor Initiative, transforms the area into a single space where exchange of ideas, movement of goods and meeting people is fast, easy, and free of barriers. This fact sheet explains the corridor concept and its application through Almaty–Bishkek Economic Corridor (ABEC) development, shows the achieved milestones, and outlines the tasks ahead.
(CAREC)
Jun 2017Transport, Trade FacilitationCAREC Publications
Digital Trade Facilitation: Paperless Trade in Regional Trade Agreements
This paper examines the extent to which measures aimed at dematerializing trade data and documents and enabling their electronic exchange, commonly referred to as paperless trade measures, are included in regional trade agreements, including in the Trans-Pacific Partnership and ASEAN agreements.
(ADB)
Jun 2017Trade FacilitationWorking papers
Turning the Tide in Turbulent Times: Leveraging Trade for Kazakhstan's Development
Kazakhstan is facing its greatest economic challenge since the global crisis. With oil prices at $50 per barrel, the country urgently needs to adjust its economic model and find new sources of economic growth.
(World Bank)
May 2017Trade FacilitationWorking papers
Why Trade Finance Gaps Persist: Does it Matter for Trade and Development?
Trade finance shortfalls now appear regularly. Does this matter for trade expansion and economic development in developing countries?
(ADB)
Mar 2017Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyWorking papers
Trade Finance Program Brochure
This brochure provides an overview of the advantages of ADB's Trade Finance Program, a program summary, as well as information on the confirming and issuing bank transaction processes. The three main products of ADB's Trade Finance Program (TFP) are Guarantee Products, Funded Product, Distribution Product (Cofinance).
(ADB)
Mar 2017Trade FacilitationBrochures and flyers
Changing Patterns of Trade and Global Value Chains in Postcrisis Asia
Sophisticated and geographically dispersed global value chains have emerged as an important feature of Asia’s economic success, particularly in East Asia.
(ADB)
Feb 2017Trade FacilitationWorking papers
Can Trade Help Achieve the Employment Targets of the Sustainable Development Goals?
The theoretical and empirical links between trade and employment are examined to suggest whether trade has a positive or negative impact on the quantity and quality of employment.
(ADB)
Jan 2017Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyWorking papers
Trade, Infrastructure, and Development
This paper surveys the literature on trade and development, especially on complementarities associated with trade infrastructure.
(ADB)
Dec 2016Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyWorking papers
Promoting Agricultural Value Chain Integration in Central Asia and the Caucasus
Agricultural value chain integration is crucial for increasing agricultural output in Central Asia and the Caucasus.
(ADB)
Nov 2016Trade FacilitationWorking papers
CAREC Development Effectiveness Review 2015 | РУССКИЙ
This CAREC Program Development Effectiveness Review is the sixth annual consolidated picture of progress made by country and multilateral institution partners of CAREC toward economic development through regional cooperation. It measures the performance of CAREC projects and initiatives in transport, trade, and energy during 2015; highlights achievements; identifies areas for improvement; and proposes actions to meet emerging challenges and assist in strategic decision making.
(CAREC)
Oct 2016Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
CAREC 2020 Midterm Review | РУССКИЙ
The purpose of the Mid-Term Review (MTR) is to review the relevance and responsiveness of CAREC 2020, including implementation performance, results achieved and the effectiveness of the CAREC institutions; to draw lessons from the experience gained in the first five years of the strategy; and to propose refinements and strategies moving forward.
(CAREC)
Oct 2016Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
CAREC Corridor Performance Measurement and Monitoring Annual Report 2015
This report is based on trip samples submitted by national transport associations from CAREC member countries that include performance metrics on cargo transport in the region. The data are then aggregated to show the relative performance of each CAREC corridor.
(CAREC)
Jul 2016Transport, Trade FacilitationCAREC Publications
Connecting to Compete 2016: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy
The 2016 edition of Connecting to Compete scores and benchmarks countries’ performance on logistics. Germany ranked first for the second time in a row, and Syria ranked last. The top performing countries tend to be high-income; countries with the lowest scores tend to be low-income.
(World Bank)
Jun 2016Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
CAREC Corridor Performance Measurement and Monitoring Annual Report 2014
This report is based on trip samples submitted by national transport associations from CAREC member countries that include performance metrics on cargo transport in the region. The data are then aggregated to show the relative performance of each CAREC corridor.
(CAREC)
Apr 2016Transport, Trade FacilitationCAREC Publications
Modernizing Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures to Expand Trade and Ensure Food Safety
The workshop, “Modernizing Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures to Expand Trade and Ensure Food Safety: Sharing the Baltic Experience,” focused on best practices in the area of integrated trade facilitation, one of the priorities under the refined CAREC Trade and Transport Facilitation Strategy 2020.
(ADB)
Feb 2016Trade FacilitationCAREC Publications
CAREC Development Effectiveness Review 2014 | РУССКИЙ
This brochure summarizes what CAREC achieved during 2014 and what its priorities are for 2015 and beyond. Total investments reached around $24.6 billion in 156 projects by the end of 2014.
(CAREC)
Jan 2016Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
The Impact of Infrastructure on Trade and Economic Growth in Selected Economies in Asia
This study quantifies the impacts of both hard and soft infrastructure on trade volume for exporters and importers in the region as well as on various economic growth indicators.
(Normaz Wana Ismail, Jamilah Mohd Mahyideen / ADB)
Dec 2015Trade FacilitationWorking papers
From Landlocked to Linked In: The Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program | РУССКИЙ
This publication discusses the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program as a partnership of 10 countries supported by six multilateral institutions. The program invests in regional infrastructure and initiatives to promote connectivity and trade, helping the mostly landlocked countries reach out to global markets. The deepening regional trade links are also opening up previously unexploited resources, including huge energy resources.
(ADB)
Sep 2015Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, Energy, Regional CooperationCAREC Publications
Operationalizing Economic Corridors in Central Asia: A Case Study of the Almaty–Bishkek Corridor | РУССКИЙ
This report builds on the long-term strategic framework of the CAREC Program to operationalize economic corridor development (ECD) in the Central Asia region. The study provides a detailed but preliminary exploration of a specific segment of CAREC Corridor 1—the Almaty–Bishkek Corridor—to assess its potential as a pilot for ECD, and outlines steps to be taken over the next 12 months to develop this corridor.
(CAREC)
Nov 2014Transport, Trade FacilitationCAREC Publications
CAREC Development Effectiveness Review 2013: A Refined Perspective | РУССКИЙ
This review measures the performance of CAREC projects and initiatives in transport, trade, and energy during 2013; highlights achievements; identifies areas for improvement; and proposes actions to meet emerging challenges and assist in strategic decision making.
(CAREC)
Nov 2014Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
CAREC Development Effectiveness Review (DEfR) 2013: A Refined Perspective | РУССКИЙ
This DEfR is the fifth annual consolidated picture of progress made by country and multilateral institution partners of CAREC toward economic development through regional cooperation. This brochure provides a snapshot of the CAREC Program's progress in 2013.
(ADB)
Oct 2014Transport, Trade Facilitation, Energy, Trade PolicyCAREC Publications
CAREC Corridor Performance Measurement and Monitoring: A Forward-Looking Retrospective | РУССКИЙ | 中文
This report describes how CAREC corridor performance measurement and monitoring (CPMM) helps to achieve the objectives of the CAREC Transport and Trade Facilitation Strategy and its Implementation Action Plan.
(ADB)
Oct 2014Transport, Trade FacilitationCAREC Publications
Revitalizing Industrial Growth in Pakistan: Trade, Infrastructure, and Environmental Performance
Shows how Pakistan can revitalize its manufacturing by reducing the cost of doing business, improving the investment climate, and strengthening institutions to facilitate the flow of people, goods, and ideas and thus stimulate medium-term growth and job creation.
(Sanchez-Triana, Ernesto; Biller, Dan; Nabi, Ijaz; Ortolano, Leonard; Dezfuli, Ghazal; Afzal, Javaid; Enriquez, Santiago / World Bank)
Jul 2014Trade FacilitationBooks
CAREC Corridor Performance Measurement and Monitoring Annual Report 2013 | РУССКИЙ
Based on data submitted by national transport associations from CAREC member countries and using time-cost-distance methodology, the report focuses on measuring time and costs incurred in transporting various types of goods across Central Asia.
(ADB)
Jun 2014Transport, Trade FacilitationCAREC Publications
The Eurasian Connection : Supply-Chain Efficiency along the Modern Silk Route through Central Asia
Explains how supply chain fragmentation remains a serious obstacle to economic development of Central Asia and provides a comprehensive assessment of the various factors that impede supply-chain integration, including weak transport and communications infrastructure.
(Rastogi, Cordula; Arvis, Jean-Francois / World Bank)
Jun 2014Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Analysis of Informal Obstacles to Cross-Border Economic Activity in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan
Analyzes trade barriers in manufacturing, transport, and agriculture, which are key industries that experience different types of restrictions and varying degrees of state intervention in both countries.
(Vakulchuk, Roman; Irnazarov, Farrukh / ADB)
May 2014Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyWorking Papers
“At the Border” and “Behind the Border”: Integrated Trade Facilitation—Reforms and Implementation | РУССКИЙ
Government officials and private sector representatives from CAREC countries and elsewhere exchanged information about new methods and technologies concerning border management, customs control, and trade facilitation. This report summarizes the knowledge they shared and gained.
(ADB)
Mar 2014Transport, Trade FacilitationCAREC Publications
CAREC Transport and Trade Facilitation Strategy 2020 | РУССКИЙ
The Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Transport and Trade Facilitation Strategy (TTFS) was refined to account for changes in the CAREC Program since 2008, particularly expanded membership and the new strategic framework (CAREC 2020). The refined strategy also reflects lessons learned during the initial phase of implementation, aiming to more efficiently and comprehensively achieve the goals of establishing competitive corridors; facilitating the movement of goods and people through these corridors; and providing sustainable, safe, and user-friendly transport and trade networks.
(ADB)
Feb 2014Transport, Trade FacilitationCAREC Publications
CAREC in Tajikistan: Building a Global Future | РУССКИЙ
Tajikistan is committed to expanding mutually beneficial economic cooperation with all countries and has actively participated in the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Program since 1998. CAREC seeks to boost the country’s prosperity by increasing access to trade and transport services and supporting the expansion of the energy sector.
(CAREC)
Jan 2014Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
CAREC Development Effectiveness Review 2012: Implementing CAREC 2020 – Vision and Action (Brochure) | РУССКИЙ
A snapshot of the CAREC Program's progress in 2012.
(ADB)
Oct 2013Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
CAREC Development Effectiveness Review 2012: Implementing CAREC 2020 – Vision and Action | РУССКИЙ
This CAREC DeFR is the fourth annual consolidated picture of progress made by country and multilateral institution partners of CAREC toward economic development through regional cooperation. It measures the performance of CAREC projects and initiatives in transport, trade, and energy during 2012; highlights achievements; identifies areas for improvement; and proposes actions to meet emerging challenges and assist in strategic decision making.
(ADB)
Sep 2013Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
CAREC Corridor Performance Measurement and Monitoring Annual Report 2012 | РУССКИЙ
The report provides valuable statistical data to evaluate freight flows and costs along the six CAREC transport corridors. Adopted in 2007 as part of CAREC’s Transport and Trade Facilitation Strategy, CPMM supports policy reforms to improve transport links and facilitate trade between CAREC member countries.
(CAREC)
Aug 2013Trade Facilitation, TransportCAREC Publications
Modernizing Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures to Facilitate Trade in Agricultural and Food Products
Recommends a set of coordinated measures designed to improve and reduce delays in handling perishable goods in transit (and particularly at border -crossing points), ensure that food is safe for consumers, and prevent the spread of pests and diseases among animals and plants. The study is based on an examination of sanitary and phytosanitary measures as applied in the People’s Republic of China, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Mongolia, and Uzbekistan.
(ADB)
May 2013Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
How Much Do Tariffs Matter? Evidence from the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia
This paper provides an empirical analysis of the early impact of the formation of the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and the Russian Federation, and associated changes in import schedules on the structure of imports of the three member countries.
(Asel Isakova, Zsoka Koczan, and Alexander Plekhanov / EBRD)
Jan 2013Trade FacilitationWorking papers
Transition Report 2012: Integration Across Borders
This report analyzes the importance of economic integration, focusing specifically on the changing financial landscape in the eurozone single currency bloc and the creation of new pan-European institutions. It also assesses the role of trade integration.
(EBRD)
Nov 2012Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Finishing the Job: Jump-Start Afghanistan's Economy - A Handbook of Projects
This paper identifies high-priority initiatives to help stabilize Afghanistan's economy after the military pullout of the United States and NATO. These initiatives include the establishment of key border crossings to expedite the processing of exports, the creation of free economic zones, and the full implementation of a trade agreement with Pakistan.
(S. Frederick Starr, Adib Farhadi / Central Asia-Caucasus Institute)
Nov 2012Economy, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Afghanistan Diagnostics Trade Integration Study
This Diagnostics Trade Integration Study report is intended to identify concrete policy actions in three areas of endeavor: lowering the transaction costs of trade, increasing Afghanistan's competitiveness in world markets, and providing an analytical foundation for Afghanistan's national trade strategy.
(World Bank)
Nov 2012Trade FacilitationResearch and Reports
The New Silk Road and the Northern Distribution Network: A Golden Road to Central Asian Trade Reform?
This paper provides a constructive assessment of the challenges confronting the efforts to develop the Northern Distribution Network as the basis for a new "Silk Road."
(Graham Lee / Open Society Foundations)
Oct 2012Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
CAREC Corridor Performance Measurement and Monitoring Annual Report 2011 | РУССКИЙ | 中文
This report is based on trip samples submitted by national transport associations from CAREC member countries that include performance metrics on cargo transport in the region.
(CAREC)
Aug 2012Transport, Trade FacilitationCAREC Publications
Connecting to Compete 2012: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy
This third edition reports on the Logistics Performance Index (LPI) and its six component indicators. The LPI measures logistics efficiency, now widely recognized as vital for trade and growth. A country’s ability to trade globally depends on its traders’ access to global freight and logistics networks; and the efficiency of a country’s supply chain (in cost, time, and reliability) depends on specific features of its domestic economy (logistics performance).
(Jean-Francois Arvis, Monica Alina Mustra, Lauri Ojala, Ben Shepherd, and Daniel Saslavsky / World Bank)
May 2012Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Measuring Commodity-Level Trade Costs in Asia: The Basis for Effective Trade Facilitation Policies in the Region
This paper suggests that the use of trade statistics calculated in conjunction with “Doing Business” data is helpful in understanding overall as well as detailed commodity-level trade costs. The two can be regarded as alternative indicators of trade efficiency, because both indicators improve when the trade transaction is streamlined. By using trade statistics, long-term trade costs and trade costs for each commodity group can be computed.
(Shintaro Hamanaka and Romana Domingo / ADB)
Apr 2012Trade FacilitationWorking papers
Collaborative Border Management: A New Approach to an Old Problem
This issue of Economic Premise outlines a collaborative border management model which provides a comprehensive approach to tackling the issue of border clearance procedures. The model offers the potential to significantly enhance trade facilitation outcomes for developing countries.
(Gerard McLinden / World Bank)
Apr 2012Trade FacilitationBriefs and notes
International Trade in Natural Resources: Practice and Policy
Natural resources account for 20% of world trade and dominate the exports of many countries. Policy is used to manipulate both international and domestic prices of resources, yet this policy is largely outside the disciplines of the World Trade Organization. The instruments used include export taxes, price controls, production quotas, and domestic producer and consumer taxes. This paper reviews the literature and argues that the policy equilibrium is inefficient. This inefficiency is exacerbated by market failure in long-run contracts for exploration and development of natural resources.
(Michele Ruta and Anthony J. Venables / World Trade Organization)
Mar 2012Trade FacilitationWorking papers
Aid for Trade in Asia and the Pacific: Its Role in Trade-Driven Growth
This report of the Regional Technical Group attempts to provide an overview of the experience of trade and foreign direct investment–driven growth and Aid for Trade in Asia the Pacific in order to (i) prompt new ways of gauging the region’s trade performance and capacity, (ii) galvanize the need for more Aid for Trade in the region, and (iii) offer policy lessons on optimal ways to operationalize projects on the ground.
(ADB)
Mar 2012Trade Facilitation, Economy, Private Sector, PovertyResearch and reports
CAREC 2020: A Strategic Framework for the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program 2011–2020 | РУССКИЙ
CAREC 2020 provides the strategic framework for the Program’s next 10 years. It reflects the required enhancements in the Comprehensive Action Plan to move the Program toward its vision of Good Partners, Good Neighbors, and Good Prospects.
(CAREC)
Feb 2012Regional Cooperation, Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
Handbook of Best Practices at Border Crossings - A Transport and Trade Facilitation Perspective | РУССКИЙ
This reference document is a practical guide for government agencies and private sector bodies that operate border-crossing points. It aims to raise awareness of the range of instruments to develop and implement better trade, transport, border and customs policies. Drawing upon operational evidence and case studies, it offers best practices from both public and private perspectives. The publication primarily focuses on road border crossing points, but also touches on rail and sea crossings.
(OSCE and UNECE)
Feb 2012Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Assessment of Costs and Benefits of the Customs Union for Kazakhstan
This paper, the first report under the Study of International Practice of Integration/Customs Unions, presents three possible outcomes for Kazakhstan when it entered into a customs union with Belarus and the Russian Federation. It attempts to assess the probability of success that the customs union will have with the reduction of trade facilitation costs and non-tariff barriers.
(World Bank)
Jan 2012Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Trade Corridor Management Toolkit: Overview
This toolkit is designed as a comprehensive and holistic tool to help improve the performance of trade and transport corridors. It will provide a menu-based reference for the Bank and other agencies involved in corridor‐based projects. Task managers and policy makers will be able to access in a single place, a suite of instruments to assess, improve and manage corridor performance
(Charles Kunaka, Robin Carruthers, Jonathan Stevens / World Bank)
Jan 2012Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Eurasian Integration Yearbook 2012
This annual publication focuses on the theoretical and practical aspects of Eurasian integration. The 2012 edition highlights the expansion of the Customs Union into the Single Economic Space, whose primary goal will be to promote the free movement of goods, capital, services, and people. This edition also has articles on economic cooperation in air transport, electric power, and hydropower and water management.
(Evgeny Vinokurov, ed. / Eurasian Development Bank)
2012Regional Cooperation, Trade FacilitationBooks
International Trade Statistics 2012
This publication presents a comprehensive overview of the latest developments in world trade. It covers the details of merchandise trade by product and trade in commercial services.
(World Trade Organization)
2012Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Trade Facilitation Terms: An English-Russian Glossary (Revised second edition)
This revised second edition of the glossary is a collaborative work of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the Secretariat of the Commission of the Customs Union. This edition is expected to be the new standard reference on trade facilitation terms.
(UNECE)
2012Trade FacilitationBooks
Trade Profiles 2012
This publication provides a country-by-country breakdown of trade flows and trade policy measures for WTO members and countries seeking to join the WTO. The data provided for each country includes basic economic indicators, trade policy indicators, merchandise trade flows, commercial trade flows, and industrial property indicators.
(World Trade Organization)
2012Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyResearch and reports
World Tariff Profiles 2012
This publication provides information on market access. The listing of the tariffs imposed by each WTO member on its imports is complemented with an analysis of the market access conditions it faces in its major export markets.
(World Trade Organization, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, and International Trade Centre)
2012Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyResearch and reports
World Trade Report 2012 - Trade and Public Policies: A closer look at non-tariff measures in the 21st century
The report reveals how the expansion of global production chains, climate change, and the growing importance of consumer concerns in richer countries affect the use of non-tariff measures.
(World Trade Organization)
2012Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
The Time Cost of Documents to Trade
This paper analyzes the relationship between the number of documents required to export and import and the time it takes to complete all procedures to trade. It shows that an increase in the number of documents required for export and import tends to increase the time cost of shipments.
(Mohammad Amin / World Bank)
Dec 2011Trade FacilitationWorking papers
The New Silk Road: Ten Years of the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program
This commemorative book celebrates 10 years of productive collaboration under the CAREC Program. Under the Program, member countries have made significant gains in regional transport, energy infrastructure, and trade facilitation and policy. The spirit of trust and confidence that has evolved through the years among good neighbors and good partners has led to better prospects for all.
(ADB)
Dec 2011Regional Cooperation, Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
Moving Goods Faster and Better: Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program’s Transport and Trade Facilitation in Tajikistan | РУССКИЙ
The Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Program may not yet be a household name in Tajikistan, but this brochure shows how it has definitely made a difference. CAREC has helped build the highways that bring goods from producer to household and create opportunities to reap and enjoy the benefits of the country’s strategic location.
(ADB)
Sep 2011Transport, Trade FacilitationOthers
Trade Expansion through Market Connection - The Central Asian Markets of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, and Tajikistan
As Central Asian countries cope with the effects of the global crisis, there is need to think strategically about how to strengthen their export competitiveness in the medium- to long-term. This report recommends that Central Asian countries build their export-diversification policies on three spatial levels: urban (leading city), area (city-hinterland), and regional (integration with regional markets).
(World Bank)
Jun 2011Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Methodology for Impact Assessment of Free Trade Agreements
This publication presents several available methods to evaluate the impact of free trade agreements. It caters mainly to policy makers from developing countries and aims to equip them with economic knowledge and techniques necessary to conduct their own economic evaluation studies on existing or future agreements, or to critically re-examine the results of impact assessment studies conducted by others.
(Michael G. Plummer, David Cheong, Shintaro Hamanaka / ADB)
Feb 2011Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Intraregional Trade Costs in Asia: A Primer
While most Asian countries actively engage in bilateral or regional trade and economic integration initiatives, including trade facilitation or trade cost reduction programs or targets, little is known about the level of intraregional trade costs in Asia and to what extent these costs may have decreased over time. To address this knowledge gap, this paper estimates and analyzes intra- and extra-regional trade costs of 4 Asian subregions, namely Association of Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN), South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), North and Central Asia, and East and Northeast Asia.
(Trade and Investment Division / UNESCAP)
Jan 2011Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, Regional CooperationWorking papers
Connecting Landlocked Developing Countries to Markets
This book aims to help the policy maker and development community in general to understand the nature of the problems and policy dilemmas that landlocked countries face to trade with the rest of the world. An important breakthrough in the literature, this volume focuses on a new conceptual framework that challenges the previous paradigm of physical infrastructure and state-led access solutions, embodied in many treaties.
(Jean Francois Arvis, Robin Carruthers, Graham Smith, and Christopher Willoughby / World Bank)
Jan 2011Transport, Trade FacilitationBooks
Infrastructure and Growth in Developing Asia
This paper presents the state of infrastructure in developing Asian countries. It applies two distinct approaches (growth regressions and growth accounting) to analyze the link between infrastructure, growth, and productivity. The main conclusion is that a number of countries in developing Asia have significantly improved their basic infrastructure endowments in the recent past, and this appears to correlate significantly to good growth performances.
(Stéphane Straub, Akiko Terada-Hagiwara / ADB)
Jan 2011Transport, Economy, Energy, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Making Globalization Socially Sustainable
This publication discusses ways of making globalization socially sustainable. Globalization has the potential to promote growth and development but concerns have been raised about its effects on jobs and wages.
(International Labour Office and World Trade Organization)
2011Economy, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Review of Maritime Transport 2010
This publication closely monitors developments affecting world seaborne trade, freight rates, ports, surface transport, and logistics services, as well as trends in ship ownership and control and fleet age, tonnage supply, and productivity. The Review contains a chapter on legal and regulatory developments and each year includes a chapter highlighting a different region. In 2010, the focus is on Asia and the Pacific.
(UNCTAD)
Dec 2010Transport, Trade FacilitationBooks
UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics
This publication provides essential data for analyzing and measuring world trade, investment, international financial flows and development. Reliable statistical information is often considered the first step during the preparation of recommendations or decision making that countries will commit for many years as they strive to integrate into the world economy and improve the living standards of their citizens.
(UNCTAD)
Dec 2010Trade Facilitation, EconomyBooks
Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Report 2010: Recent Trends and Developments
This edition (i) discusses recent trends in merchandise trade flows of selected countries and country-groups; (ii) comprehensively analyzes recent trends in commercial services trade in the region, providing an up-to-date breakdown of services trade for different subregions and services sectors; (iii) focuses on recent developments in foreign direct investment (FDI) in and from the region and explains why some economies attract more FDI than others; (iv) estimates the costs of trade for Asia and the Pacific utilizing a new database developed by UNESCAP; (v) details recent developments in regional trade agreements and provides relevant statistics on merchandise trade covered by these agreements; and (vi) gives an overview of protectionist measures that announced or implemented since November 2008.
(Trade and Investment Division / UNESCAP)
Dec 2010Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EconomyBooks
Border Management Modernization: A Practical Guide for Reformers
This book provides border management policy makers and reformers with a broad survey of key developments in and principles for improving trade facilitation through better border management, including practical advice on particular issues. In contrast to the traditional border management reform agenda, with its focus on improving customs operations, this book addresses both customs reform and areas well beyond customs-a significant broadening of scope.
(Gerard McLinden, Enrique Fanta, David Widdowson, and Tom Doyle, eds. / World Bank)
Nov 2010Regional Cooperation, Trade FacilitationBooks
Trade and Income in Asia: Panel Data Evidence from Instrumental Variable Regression
This paper derives a Frankel–Romer instrument from a global trade matrix of 157 countries between 1990 and 2007. Instrumental variable regressions assess the relationship between international trade, domestic market potential, and income for developing Asia compared to the world average. The study concludes that, on average, international trade has increased income across trading nations, particularly for countries in developing Asia. Domestic market size, on the other hand, is found to be less relevant in explaining growth in developing Asia, indicating that there is much scope for the region to exploit domestic markets as an additional engine of growth.
(Benno Ferrarini / ADB)
Nov 2010Trade Facilitation, EconomyWorking papers
Trends in National and Regional Investors Financing Crossborder Infrastructure Projects in Asia
This paper examines a range of cross-border infrastructure development issues relevant to Asian countries. It also states that, given the huge infrastructure investment needs of the region and insufficient government resources, the role of the private sector and public–private partnerships in enhancing infrastructure facilities in Asia is crucial.
(Prabir De, Muthi Samudram, Sanjeev Moholkar / ADB Institute)
Sep 2010Energy, Transport, Trade FacilitationWorking papers
Appropriate Economic Space for Transnational Infrastructural Projects: Gateways, Multimodal Corridors, and Special Economic Zones
This paper addresses questions that arise in Asia when formulating, financing, implementing, and maintaining transnational linkages versus purely domestic connections. Issues include (i) how is optimal economic space to be defined as a useful starting point?; (ii) how can relevant criteria be developed to define the emerging spatial economy and identify efficient transnational transport networks?; and (iii) what are the main investment opportunities in physical infrastructure that would result in more efficient and effective regional cooperation and integration (making special reference to the potential role of cross-border special economic zones or their equivalents)?
(Peter J. Rimmer, Howard Dick / ADB Institute)
Aug 2010Transport, Trade Facilitation, Regional CooperationWorking papers
Trade Facilitation and Regional Cooperation in Asia
The studies in this book look at how investment in Asia’s infrastructure promotes and supports interregional trade growth. The region’s rapid development has been heavily dependent on markets external to the region. However, given the unlikely timely recovery of the United States or Europe there is an urgent need to develop domestic and regional markets. Thus, the importance of greater integration has been more pressing.
(Douglas Brooks, Susan Stone (eds.) / ADB Institute)
Jul 2010Trade Facilitation, Regional CooperationBooks
Central Asia: Expanding Trade by Connecting with Markets
The report signals the need for Central Asian countries to diversify their export bases. To attain productivity that is vital for the future economic growth and development of the region, the report calls on countries to diversity products and exports, and to develop their markets that will eventually facilitate transformation from agriculture to industry and services. The report focuses on Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, and Tajikistan.
(World Bank)
Jun 2010Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Achieving the Trade Targets of Millennium Development Goal 8: Status in the Least Developed Countries of Asia and the Pacific
This paper examines the progress in achieving the trade targets of Millennium Development Goal 8—“Building a global partnership for development”—with respect to the least developed countries (LDCs) of Asia and the Pacific. It concludes that while the market access commitments of the Hong Kong World Trade Organization’s Ministerial Declaration of 2005 have largely been met and LDCs of the Asia-Pacific benefit disproportionately from Aid for Trade, the overall share of LDC exports as a part of total world exports has not increased over the past decade.
(Trade and Investment Division / UNESCAP)
Jun 2010Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyWorking papers
Regional Trade Agreements
This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on regionalism. The formation of regional trade agreements has been, by far, the most popular form of reciprocal trade liberalization in the past 15 years. The discriminatory character of these agreements has raised three main concerns: that trade diversion would be rampant, because special interest groups would induce governments to form the most distortionary agreements; that broader external trade liberalization would stall or reverse; and that multilateralism could be undermined.
(Caroline Freund, Emanuel Ornelas / World Bank)
May 2010Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyWorking Papers
Export Performance and Trade Facilitation Reform: Hard and Soft Infrastructure
This paper estimates the impact of aggregate indicators of “soft” and “hard” infrastructure on the export performance of developing countries. Four new indicators for 101 countries (including those in Central Asia) were built over 2004-2007. Estimates show that trade facilitation reforms do improve the export performance of developing countries. This is particularly true with investment in physical infrastructure and regulatory reform to improve the business environment.
(Albert Portugal-Perez, John S. Wilson / World Bank)
Apr 2010Trade FacilitationWorking Papers
Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation: Good Neighbors, Good Partners, Good Prospects | РУССКИЙ | 中文
This brochure gives an overview of the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Program. It briefly explains the program, its structure, its comprehensive action plan, the four priority sectors (transport, trade facilitation, trade policy, and energy), and its other initiatives.
(CAREC / ADB)
Apr 2010Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, Energy, Regional CooperationOthers
Bilateral Dimensions of the CAREC Trade Facilitation Agenda: Spotlight on Mongolia and the People's Republic of China
The April 2010 issue of ADB Knowledge Showcases newsletter looks at the bilateral dimensions of the CAREC Trade Facilitation Agenda between Mongolia and the People's Republic of China. The agenda promotes cooperation on regional public goods which promises substantial economic benefits. It is implemented under the CAREC program which provides an effective institutional forum for negotiating complex, cross-border projects.
(Ying Qian, Yuebin Zhang, Jeff Procak / ADB)
Apr 2010Trade FacilitationOthers
Business Process Analysis Guide to Simplify Trade Procedures | РУССКИЙ
This publication provides a simple methodology to elicit, document, and analyze the existing business processes involved in international trade, as well as aid in developing recommendations for further improvement. It intends to serve policy makers and practitioners from government agencies or the private sector involved in the harmonization and simplification of international trade procedures, alignment of data requirements with the international standard, and implementation of single window.
(UNESCAP)
Dec 2009Trade Facilitation, Private SectorBooks
Impact of Trade Facilitation on Export Competitiveness: A Regional Perspective
This paper examines the definition and scope of trade facilitation; presents the concept of export competitiveness and relevant indices; discusses the role of trade facilitation in enhancing export competitiveness; identifies the major issues that developing countries in Asia should address in terms of trade facilitation to enhance export competitiveness; and provides policy recommendations.
(UNESCAP)
Dec 2009Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Designing and Implementing Trade Facilitation in Asia and the Pacific
This reference book aims to support the implementation of trade facilitation measures and reforms in Asia and the Pacific. It attempts to bridge the gaps among policy makers, practitioners, and economists by outlining operational guidance on how to assess the status of trade facilitation, what measures and reforms are necessary, and how to implement them at national and regional levels.
(ADB, UNESCAP)
Nov 2009Trade FacilitationBooks
Transport and Trade Logistics Development Strategies for CAREC: A Synopsis of Nine ADB Studies | РУССКИЙ | 中文
This synopsis summarizes the results and recommendations of nine studies supported by the Asian Development Bank. It provides an overview of the CAREC region (geography, population, natural resources, economy, and international trade); surveys issues and challenges in trade (deficiencies and inefficiencies in physical infrastructure, unsupportive policies and procedures); and measures to develop more efficient and competitive transport and logistics sectors.
(ADB)
Oct 2009Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Azerbaijan: Trade Facilitation and Logistics Development Strategy Report
This report discusses the status and challenges of the transport and logistics sectors in Azerbaijan and recommends measures to strengthen these sectors. Efficient and cost-competitive transport and logistics sectors will help Azerbaijan to spur economic activity, engender social and political cohesion, and take full advantage of its geographical position to serve as a transit corridor between East and West.
(Andy Sze / ADB)
Oct 2009Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Kazakhstan: Trade Facilitation and Logistics Development Strategy Report
This report discusses the status and challenges of the transport and logistics sectors in Kazakhstan and recommends measures to strengthen these sectors. Efficient and cost-competitive transport and logistics sectors will help Kazakhstan spur economic activity.
(Max Ee Khong Kie, Saltanat Akhmet / ADB)
Oct 2009Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
The Kyrgyz Republic: Trade Facilitation and Logistics Development Strategy Report
This report discusses the status and challenges of the transport and logistics sectors in the Kyrgyz Republic and recommends measures to strengthen these sectors.
(Oleg Samukhin, Esengeldy Toguzbaev / ADB)
Oct 2009Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Mongolia: Trade Facilitation and Logistics Development Strategy Report
This report discusses the status and challenges of the transport and logistics sectors in Mongolia and recommends measures to strengthen these sectors.
(Max Ee Khong Kie, Paige Lee Hwee Chen, Teo Puay Kim, Damdinjav Amarsaikhan, Dambiiyam Ochirbat / ADB)
Oct 2009Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Tajikistan: Trade Facilitation and Logistics Development Strategy Report
This report discusses the status and challenges of the transport and logistics sectors in Tajikistan and recommends measures to strengthen these sectors.
(Max Ee Khong Kie, Boymurod Eshonov / ADB)
Oct 2009Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Uzbekistan: Trade Facilitation and Logistics Development Strategy Report
This report discusses the status and challenges of the transport and logistics sectors in Uzbekistan and recommends measures to strengthen these sectors.
(Andy Sze / ADB)
Oct 2009Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Investment Guide to the Silk Road | 中文
This publication gives comprehensive introductory information about the investment climate and opportunities in the Silk Road region. Its primary goal is to encourage potential investors to explore in more detail their own ideas for possible regional investment projects.
(UNCTAD)
Sep 2009Regional Cooperation, Transport, Trade Facilitation, Energy, Private SectorBooks
CAREC Transport and Trade Facilitation: Partnership for Prosperity | РУССКИЙ
The publication presents the major elements of the strategy and the action plan, both of which support broad-based activities comprising competitive corridor development and management, trade facilitation, and sustainability enhancement by improving infrastructure, management, and technology, focusing on the six major corridors of the CAREC region.
(ADB)
Aug 2009Transport, Trade FacilitationCAREC Publications
Aid for Trade in Asia and the Pacific: An Update
This report provides an update on the WTO Aid for Trade initiative in Asia and the Pacific since the first Global Aid for Trade Review in November 2007. It covers the global economic crisis and evolving Aid for Trade needs in the region; a discussion of recent activities, focusing on those involving ADB; and next steps. It has a section on projects under the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program.
(ADB)
Jul 2009Transport, Trade Facilitation, Regional CooperationResearch and reports
Restoring the Asian Silk Route: Toward an Integrated Asia
This paper argues that lack of full regional connectivity is one of the major constraints hindering regional growth and integration in Asia, as well as with the rest of the world. One of the conclusions of this paper is that Asia must strengthen its physical connectivity to make it a conduit for international trade through restoring Asian Silk Route.
(Biswa Bhattacharyay, Prabir De / ADB Institute)
Jun 2009Transport, Trade Facilitation, Regional CooperationWorking papers
CAREC Institute Foundation Study: Transport and Trade Facilitation
This study presents a consolidated picture of development projects on the transport and trade facilitation sectors in the CAREC region between 2000 and 2008. It focuses on actions funded by development agencies active in the region, providing an opportunity for all parties to share information and experience about their work in the region, seek more effective ways of coordination, and explore options for further collaboration.
(Michael Heppell / CAREC Institute)
Jun 2009Regional Cooperation, Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
The EurAsEC Transport Corridors
This sector report provides an insight into the diverse problems associated with transit via the Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC), such as competition in the transit transportation industry and the structure of competitive advantage in sea and land freight transit, identification of cargoes which can be transported via the international transport corridors, and analysis and elimination of physical and non-physical barriers.
(Evgeny Vinokurov, Murat Jadraliyev, Yuri Shcherbanin / Eurasian Development Bank)
Mar 2009Transport, Regional Cooperation, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Infrastructure's Role in Lowering Asia's Trade Costs: Building for Trade
Infrastructure is shown to be a cost-effective means of lowering trade costs and thereby promoting regional growth and integration. This book combines thematic and country studies, while breaking new ground in quantifying infrastructure's impact on Asia's trade costs. It also contributes to a better understanding of the region's logistics challenges.
(Douglas Brooks, David Hummels (eds.) / ADB Institute)
2009Transport, Trade FacilitationBooks
Eurasian Integration Yearbook 2009
This publication chronicles regional integration events in 2008. It features three papers on institutional integration and its relation to economic growth, a review of growing cooperation in the financial sector, and an overview of the activities of international and regional development banks in the region.
(Eurasian Development Bank)
2009Regional Cooperation, Transport, Trade Facilitation, EconomyBooks
Challenges and Opportunities for Trade and Financial Integration in Asia and the Pacific
This book explores various aspects of trade and financial integration in Asia and the Pacific, the reasons for the lack of it, and potential benefits of strengthening such integration. The book focuses on the exploration of challenges and opportunities that exist in intra-regional trade in goods, integration in services trade, availability of trade finance, as well as inflows of portfolio investments.
(UNESCAP)
2009Regional Cooperation, Trade FacilitationBooks
Linking Asia's Trade, Logistics, and Infrastructure
Infrastructure services play a vital role in facilitating Asia's export-led growth by keeping the prices of delivered goods in export markets competitive. This paper shows how Asia's trade patterns are characterized by a high degree of intraregional trade, particularly for geographically fragmented production networks. This is both in response to, and with implications for, further infrastructure development. The challenges of providing efficient logistical support rise as countries move into progressively more complex and higher-value manufacturing, and as production processes become increasingly fragmented.
(Douglas Brooks / ADB Institute)
Dec 2008Transport, Trade FacilitationWorking papers
Regional Cooperation, Infrastructure, and Trade Costs in Asia
This study explores the nexus between Asia’s trade flows and patterns, trade costs and how they are influenced by infrastructure development, and the role of regional cooperation in facilitating trade’s contribution to economic integration. A virtuous circle between growth, infrastructure investment, trade expansion, and regional integration is elucidated.
(Douglas H. Brooks / ADB Institute)
Dec 2008Trade Facilitation, Transport, Regional CooperationWorking papers
Improving Trade and Transport for Landlocked Developing Countries: World Bank contributions to implementing the Almaty Programme of Action
This report offers the World Bank's perspective on progress in implementing the Almaty Programme of Action. The report provides an update on the access of Landlocked Developing Countries to global markets highlighting new directions to reach the Almaty objectives.
(World Bank)
Oct 2008Trade Facilitation, TransportWorking papers
Infrastructure and Asia's Trade Costs
Infrastructure has played a key role in Asia's export-led rapid growth, but the details of that contribution are poorly understood even though infrastructure accounts for huge amounts of investment. This policy brief examines and quantifies the role of hard and soft infrastructure in reducing Asia's trade costs and thereby influencing trade flows and patterns.
(Douglas Brooks / ADB Institute)
Jun 2008Transport, Trade FacilitationBriefs and notes
Regionalism and Trade Facilitation: A Primer
This paper investigates when trade facilitation reform should be undertaken at the regional level. The lessons are that regional trade agreements offer good prospects of comprehensive and effective reform and can effectively complement multilateral and national initiatives.
(Jean-Christophe Maur / World Bank)
Jan 2008Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, Regional CooperationWorking papers
Regional Approaches in Central Asia to Technical Barriers to Trade
The study identifies key sanitary and phytosanitary measures and technical barriers to trade issues in Central Asia and suggests options for regional approaches to address these issues.
(UNESCAP / United Nations)
2008Trade Facilitation, Regional CooperationResearch and reports
Implementation Action Plan for the Transport and Trade Facilitation Strategy | РУССКИЙ
The Implementation Action Plan, 2008–2017, supports the Transport and Trade Facilitation Strategy’s goal of strengthening the region’s competitiveness and expanding trade among CAREC economies and with the rest of the world. It focuses on the development of the six CAREC corridors identified in the strategy.
(CAREC / ADB)
2008Transport, Trade FacilitationOthers
Connections to Prosperity: Transport and Trade Facilitation in the CAREC Program | РУССКИЙ
Central Asia rebuilds the ancient transport and trade routes that once connected Eurasia, the region is poised to recapture its place as a center of trade and commerce. Under the CAREC Program, a further $21 billion in investments will energize a new network of six transport and trade corridors that will connect the major economic centers of the region. This brochure highlights that in 2008-2012, major transport investments will focus on Corridors 1 and 2.
(CAREC / ADB)
2008Transport, Trade FacilitationOthers
Review of Maritime Transport 2007
This edition identifies the main developments in world maritime transport and provides relevant statistical data. It focuses on developments concerning maritime activities in developing countries as compared to other groups of countries. It also highlights the correlation between the development of global trade and maritime transport activities in general. Regional developments in Asia are the subject of this year’s special chapter.
(UNCTAD)
Dec 2007Transport, Trade FacilitationBooks
Regional Trade Integration in Central Asia: The way to modernize, attract investment and new technologies
The paper looks at regional implementation of trade facilitation measures and harmonization and implementation of free trade agreements among Central Asian countries to achieve regional trade integration.
(UNECE, UNESCAP / United Nations)
Nov 2007Trade Facilitation, Regional Cooperation, Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Role of Global Value Chains: Accessing Markets, Technology, Experience | РУССКИЙ
This first issue of CAREC Notes introduces the global value chain concept and outlines some of the opportunities and implications for CAREC enterprises. Involvement in global value chains could provide access to new markets as well as the technological, managerial, and market-related know how of leading international businesses.
(George Abonyi / ADB)
Nov 2007Private Sector, Trade FacilitationBriefs and notes
The Economic Aspects of the Chinese–Central Asia Rapprochement
This paper analyzes the development of the People’s Republic of China's (PRC) economic engagement with Central Asia. Although the commercial exchanges between the PRC and Central Asia are still in their infancy, they already show a lot of promise and have burgeoned over the last few years: between 2002 and 2005, the volume of trade between the two zones tripled. For landlocked Central Asia, the PRC is thus destined to play a major role in the 21st century in opening up the region.
(Sébastien Peyrous / Central Asia-Caucasus Institute & Silk Road Studies Program)
Sep 2007Energy, Regional Cooperation, Trade Facilitation, EconomyResearch and reports
Landlockedness, Infrastructure and Trade: New Estimates for Central Asian Countries
This paper assesses the impact of internal infrastructure and landlockedness on Central Asian trade. The findings highlight the need to pursue a dual policy agenda: first, transit corridors should be managed as regional public goods; second, the Central Asian countries should diversify their transit corridors to prevent monopoly positions and bottleneck points such as trans-shipment platforms.
(Christopher Grigoriou / World Bank)
Aug 2007Trade Facilitation, Transport, Trade PolicyWorking papers
The Cost of Being Landlocked: Logistics Cost and Supply Chain Reliability
A large proportion of the least developed countries are landlocked and their access to world markets depends on the availability of a trade corridor and transit systems. The paper theoretically and empirically highlights that landlocked economies are primarily affected not only by a high cost of freight services but also by the high degree of unpredictability in transportation time.
(Jean-Francois Arvis, Gael Raballand, Jean-Francois Marteau / World Bank)
Jun 2007Trade Facilitation, TransportWorking papers
Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC): Good Neighbors, Good Partners, Good Prospects | РУССКИЙ
This brochure explains the CAREC Program, its overall institutional framework, strategic action plans, and recent investments in the priority areas of transport, energy, trade facilitation, and trade policy.
(CAREC / ADB)
Mar 2007Regional Cooperation, Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyOthers
Study on National Coordination Mechanisms for Trade and Transport Facilitation in the UNESCAP Region
This study provides (i) global and regional overviews of activities undertaken with regard to the national trade and transport facilitation coordination, and (ii) good practices in establishing new mechanisms and strengthening existing coordination mechanisms. It also proposes guidelines and recommendations for establishment or strengthening of national coordination mechanisms for trade and transport facilitation in the Asia-Pacific region.
(UNESCAP)
2007Trade Facilitation, TransportResearch and reports
Road Infrastructure in Europe and Central Asia: Does Network Quality Affect Trade?
This paper shows that better roads are strongly associated with larger trade flows within the Eastern Europe and Central Asia region (ECA). Simulation results demonstrate that the benefits for ECA from upgrading its road network may well be greater than from tariff reforms or customs streamlining programs of comparable ambition.
(Ben Shepherd, John S. Wilson / World Bank)
Dec 2006Transport, Trade FacilitationWorking papers
Best Practices in Management of International Trade Corridors
This report provides a comprehensive review of how transport corridors function, what institutional and operational structures are used to manage their performance, how that performance can be assessed and compared with that of other corridors, and what measures can be taken to improve corridor management and through that, corridor performance.
(John Arnold / World Bank)
Dec 2006Trade Facilitation, TransportWorking papers
Bilateral Trade Agreements and World Trading System
This paper identifies the general and specific factors driving the growth in bilateral trade agreements (BTAs), examines how BTAs in general, and different types of BTAs, are affecting the world trading system. Although the sheer number of BTAs is fragmenting the world trading system, the impact of individual BTAs often depends on their underlying motivation. It also considers likely scenarios for the future landscape of world trade, and possible responses.
(Jayant Menon / ADB Institute)
Nov 2006Trade Facilitation, Regional CooperationWorking papers
Infrastructure in Europe and Central Asia Region: Approaches to Sustainable Services
This report presents an overview of the key developments in the energy and infrastructure sector of the countries in Europe and Central Asia region. It attempts to identify the critical factors for success in the provision of services of acceptable quality and reliability on a sustainable basis.
(World Bank)
Jun 2006Transport, Energy, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Risk Management: Catalyst of Customs Reforms and Modernization-Experiences and Initiatives of CAREC Participating Countries
Risk management is a key thrust of the Revised Kyoto Convention and one of the priority areas of CAREC’s trade facilitation program. It allows customs to ensure smooth and speedy flow of goods while minimizing risks of missing inspection of illicit transactions. This report is a synthesis of the Trade Facilitation Program’s regional seminars and forums, particularly about seminars and workshops on risk management and post-entry audit held in Urumqi, People's Republic of China (PRC) in September 2003; Tashkent, Uzbekistan in November 2004; and Shenzhen, PRC in June 2005.
(Jeffrey Liang, Dorothea Lazaro / ADB)
Apr 2006Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Beyond Borders: Reconsidering Regional Trade in Central Asia
This paper investigates the barriers to trade in Central Asia where it uses relative prices to shed some light on impediments to trade. It finds that the impact of borders on price variations across different locations in Central Asia is much smaller than conventionally thought.
(Clemens Grafe, Martin Raiser, Toshiaki Sakatsume / EBRD)
Mar 2006Trade Facilitation, Regional CooperationWorking papers
Comparative Advantage in International Trade for Central Asia
This paper aims to develop strategies for identifying the comparative advantage of Central Asian economies in international trade, given available information about factor prices and transport costs, historical production patterns, and recent trends in the geographical and product composition of Central Asian trade.
(Matthias Lücke, Jacek Rothert / World Bank)
Jan 2006Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyResearch and reports
TIR Customs Transit System: Experiences and Initiatives of CAREC Participating Countries | РУССКИЙ
This paper provides an overview of the TIR (Transport Internationaux Routiers) Transit System and the experiences of CAREC countries that implement the system. It also supports the accession of the People's Republic of China to the TIR Convention.
(Jeffrey Liang, Dorothea Lazaro / ADB)
Jan 2006Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Central Asia: Increasing Gains from Trade through Regional Cooperation in Trade Policy, Transport, and Customs Transit
This report seeks to show how Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan can increase the gains from participation in international trade through regional cooperation in trade policy, transport, and customs transit. It attempts to quantify costs of the lack of cooperation and potential benefits of improved regional cooperation in the three areas for the above countries.
(ADB)
2006Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, Transport, Regional CooperationResearch and reports
CAREC Transport and Trade Facilitation Strategy | РУССКИЙ
The Transport and Trade Facilitation Strategy supports Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Program's goal of development through cooperation, leading to accelerated economic growth and poverty reduction by upgrading key transport corridors across the CAREC region. It also ensures efficient movement of goods along the corridors through targeted actions to simplify and harmonize the regulations that govern cross-border trade in the region.
(CAREC / ADB)
2006Transport, Trade FacilitationOthers
Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation: Trade Facilitation Program 2005 and 2006 Update
This report updates the CAREC’s Trade Facilitation and Customs Cooperation Program, first published in April 2004. It highlights the progress and major initiatives endorsed by the Customs Cooperation Committee during their Fourth Meeting on 7-9 September 2005 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. It supplements the progress report prepared for the CAREC’s Senior Officials’ Meeting held on 26-27 April 2005.
(ADB)
2006Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Tajikistan-Trade Diagnostic Study
This study examines how improvements in the internal and external trade regimes of Tajikistan and the transport and trade facilitation systems can contribute to sustaining rapid growth and attract foreign investment to win the race against the capital stock decline. Key recommendations are presented in a simple matrix format at the end of this summary for a quick overview.
(World Bank)
Dec 2005Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Customs Reforms and Modernization: Strategy and Experience of Thai Customs | РУССКИЙ
This paper highlights the customs reform and modernization strategy of Thai Customs and the experience of having a strong leadership to establish a world-class customs, mobilize public resources, and actively participate in regional cooperation initiatives and international conventions. Distilling lessons learned can help CAREC countries avoid mistakes and effectively utilize their public resources for customs reform and modernization.
(Sathit Limpongpan / ADB)
Dec 2005Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation: Harmonization and Simplification of Transport Agreements, Cross-Border Documents, and Transport Regulations | РУССКИЙ | 中文
This report identifies divergences between CAREC country’s transport regulations dealing with vehicle emission requirements, axle load control, tariffs and road-user charges, traffic safety, and provision of transport services; and suggests steps toward harmonization and simplification of cross-border transport procedures, documentation and regulations.
(Michael Simms / ADB)
Oct 2005Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Risk Management Guide | РУССКИЙ
This Guide promotes modern trade facilitation practices and presents a framework within which CAREC participating customs administrations can develop their own risk management system according to country circumstances.
(ADB, WCO)
Aug 2005Trade FacilitationOthers
The Almaty Agenda
This explanatory note of the Global Facilitation Partnership for Transportation and Trade focuses on The Almaty Agenda. The agenda comprises a list of recommendations and a program of action promulgated by the United Nations Economic and Social Council's Body on least developed and landlocked developing countries at the Almaty ministerial conference held in Kazakhstan in August 2003.
(JBC International / World Bank, DFID)
Jun 2005Trade Facilitation, Regional CooperationBriefs and notes
Trade Logistics: Practical Measures
This explanatory note of the Global Facilitation Partnership for Transportation and Trade focuses on practical measures, in the context of trade logistics. These measures include actions that can be taken by countries to change the import/export process to optimize the supply chain without requiring a significant commitment of government resources.
(JBC International / World Bank, DFID)
Jun 2005Trade FacilitationBriefs and notes
Regional Trade Integration and WTO Accession: Which is the Right Sequencing? An Application to the CIS
This paper analyzes the appropriate sequencing between accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the implementation of the Eurasian Economic Community customs union and whether the latter facilitates or delays WTO accession for some member countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
(Patrizia Tumbarello / IMF)
May 2005Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyWorking papers
Globalization, Geography, and Regional Policy
Recent theorizing on trade and geography attempts to explain globalization patterns and their consequences. This discussion paper looks at how these theories can add to the discussion about regional policy in Asia. It concludes that on both efficiency and equity grounds there remains a case for an active regional policy, and considers current thinking on how such a policy might be implemented.
(John Weiss / ADB Institute)
Apr 2005Trade Facilitation, Regional CooperationWorking papers
Singapore’s TradeNet System
Singapore's experience shows that human resource development and change management are important in developing a unified automated information system. Lessons learned from Singapore’s system can help CAREC member countries avoid mistakes and effectively utilize their public resources for customs modernization. (Russian translation is available at the end of the paper.)
(International Trade Institute of Singapore / ADB)
Mar 2005Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Customs Reforms and Modernization: The Philippine Experience
This paper highlights Philippine experience in human resource development and change management in developing a unified automated information system. Distilling lessons learned can help CAREC member countries avoid mistakes and effectively utilize their public resources for customs modernization. (Russian translation is at the end of this report.)
(George M. Jereos / ADB)
Mar 2005Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Central Asia's Transport Cost Burden and Its Impact on Trade
This paper, featured in Economic Systems 29(2005), examines the role of transport costs in causing the countries of Central Asia to generate far less trade with the European Union (EU) than their relative location would suggest. Border-crossing problems, low-traded volumes, and trade imbalance seem to be major explanations of the unexpected low trade level between Central Asia and the EU.
(Gael Raballand, Antoine Kunth, Richard Auty / Economic Systems 29 (2005) 6-31)
Feb 2005Transport, Trade FacilitationJournal articles
Customs Modernization Handbook
This handbook gives an overview of the key elements of a successful customs modernization strategy and draws lessons from a number of successful customs reforms and customs reforms projects undertaken by the World Bank. It also reviews the appropriate legal framework for customs operations and strategies to combat corruption.
(Luc de Wulf and Jose B. Sokol / World Bank)
Jan 2005Trade FacilitationBooks
Regional Cooperation of the CIS7: Past Experience and Options for the Future
The paper aims to present a framework for the analysis of regional cooperation, which will allow for the analysis of the reasons behind limited effectiveness of the existing arrangements and the incentives to improve their implementation.
(Maryla Maliszewska / World Bank)
Jan 2005Energy, Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, Regional CooperationWorking papers
Trade, Transport and Telecommunications in the South Caucasus: Current Obstacles to Regional Cooperation | РУССКИЙ
This summary paper discusses six studies on current issues and future prospects for Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia (the South Caucasus region) for trade flows, trade facilitation, roads, railroads, telecommunications and tourism.
(World Bank)
Jan 2005Transport, Trade Facilitation, Regional CooperationWorking papers
Central Asia Human Development Report: Bringing Down Barriers | РУССКИЙ
This report shows how governments, business, civil society and communities can come together in many different areas to create greater opportunities for human development and human security in the region.
(UNDP)
2005Regional Cooperation, Trade Policy, Trade Facilitation, EnergyResearch and reports
Review of Maritime Transport 2004
This edition identifies the main developments in world maritime transport and provides relevant statistical data. It focuses on developments concerning maritime activities in developing countries compared to other groups of countries. It also highlights the correlation between the development of global trade and maritime transport activities in general. Regional developments in Asia are the subject of this year’s special chapter.
(UNCTAD)
Dec 2004Transport, Trade FacilitationBooks
Regional Trade Facilitation and Customs Cooperation Program: Progress and Future Directions
This serves as a discussion paper highlighting the progress of the Regional Trade Facilitation and Customs Cooperation Program (RTFCCP) since its launch in 2002, and suggesting future directions for cooperation based on the experience and lessons learned.
(ADB)
Apr 2004Trade FacilitationWorking papers
Transition and International Integration in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union
This paper investigates the extent of integration of the transition economies into the world economy. It finds southeastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) trade significantly less with the world economy than the accession countries due to the low quality of economic institutions and the landlocked nature of its countries.
(Ian Babetskii, Oxana Babetskaia-Kukharchuk, Martin Raiser / EBRD)
Nov 2003Trade Facilitation, Regional Cooperation, EconomyWorking papers
Of Openness and Distance: Trade Developments in the Commonwealth of Independent States, 1993-2002
This paper analyzes developments in the structure of trade in the Commonwealth of Independent States during the transition decade, and finds that it changed less than in other transition economies.
(Katrin Elborgh-Woytek / IMF)
Oct 2003Trade Policy, Trade FacilitationWorking papers
Transportation Facilitation in Azerbaijan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan: Challenges and Opportunities
This paper analyzes the deficiencies of transportation systems, bilateral and multilateral transportation agreements, management and governance of transportation, and resources; and their effects on trade, and present remedial measures in the context of national, regional and international political, social, cultural, and economic objectives.
(Prianka N. Seneviratne / ADB)
Jan 2003Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Uzbekistan: Trade and Trade Facilitation Review
The paper provides an overview of foreign trade between Uzbekistan and both Commonwealth of Independent States-7 and other countries, as a basis for assessing trade performance. It assesses the trade policy of Uzbekistan as a basis for recommending trade facilitation measures. It identifies (i) the strengths, weaknesses, and constraints of the private sector; (ii) key obstacles to trade facilitation in relation to hard and soft trade infrastructure; and (iii) key areas for trade facilitation and regional cooperation.
(ADB)
Jan 2003Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, Regional CooperationResearch and reports
Cross-Border Issues in Energy Trade in the CIS Countries
This paper explores from a regional perspective the distorted nature of trade in energy products within the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries. It focuses on cross-border issues as an integral component of the wider problem of inefficient energy use within CIS.
(John R. Dodsworth, Paul Henri Mathieu, Clinton R. Shiells / IMF)
Dec 2002Energy, Trade FacilitationWorking papers
EBRD's Trade Facilitation Programme
This brochure highlights how European Bank for Reconstruction and Development's Trade Facilitation Programme promotes foreign trade with the countries of operations from Central Europe to Central Asia.
(EBRD)
May 2002Trade FacilitationOthers
Fact Sheet: The EBRD's Trade Facilitation Programme
This fact sheet provides basic information on the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development's Trade Facilitation Programme (TFP). TFP aims to promote foreign trade to, from and within Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States.
(EBRD)
2002Trade FacilitationOthers
Rebuilding the Silk Road—Encouraging Economic Cooperation in Central Asia: The Role of the Asian Development Bank
This brochure presents an overview of the opportunities of and challenges to economic cooperation in the Central Asia region and the Asian Development Bank's (ADB) regional program in support of this. It highlights the three priority areas of ADB's initiative, namely: energy, trade, and transport.
(ADB)
2001Regional Cooperation, Transport, Trade Facilitation, EnergyOthers
Disintegration and Trade Flows: Evidence from the Former Soviet Union
This study of trade flows among and between nine Russian regions and 14 republics of the former Soviet Union shows a bias toward domestic trade in the reform period that is primarily the result of tariffs.
(Simeon Djankov, Caroline Freund / World Bank)
Jun 2000Trade FacilitationWorking papers
Trade Cooperation between Kazakhstan and the Kyrgyz Republic
This publication summarizes the discussions and recommendations at the Kazakhstan-Kyrgyz Republic Trade Cooperation Workshop held on 14 August 1998 in Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic. Among the topics included how the policy environment at the Kazakh-Kyrgyz border affects general trade, traffic, and economic cooperation; identifying any continuing policy impediments to trade; and promoting discussion of policy modifications that might address these problems.
(ADB)
May 1999Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyResearch and reports
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