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Performance-based Routine Maintenance of Rural Roads by Maintenance Groups: Manual for Maintenance Groups
This manual aims to assist maintenance groups in Yunnan Province, People’s Republic of China, in organizing and carrying out the routine maintenance of unpaved rural roads. It guides the maintenance groups at the operational level in the use of appropriate tools and techniques in their work and teaches group members technical and managerial skills for routine maintenance of rural roads.
Dec 2012Transport, PovertyOthers
Performance-based Routine Maintenance of Rural Roads by Maintenance Groups: Guide for Communications Bureaus
This guide aims to assist communications bureaus in Yunnan Province, People’s Republic of China, in organizing and managing the routine maintenance of unpaved rural roads by maintenance groups. It describes the deterioration process of rural roads and the need for a proper system of routine maintenance to reduce costs and improve road conditions. It explains how to organize, train, and contract maintenance groups for routine maintenance of rural roads, based on the experience gained from the two pilot projects carried out in Dehong Prefecture.
Dec 2012Transport, PovertyOthers
Transition Report 2012: Integration Across Borders
This report analyzes the importance of economic integration, focusing specifically on the changing financial landscape in the eurozone single currency bloc and the creation of new pan-European institutions. It also assesses the role of trade integration.
Nov 2012Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Finishing the Job: Jump-Start Afghanistan's Economy - A Handbook of Projects
This paper identifies high-priority initiatives to help stabilize Afghanistan's economy after the military pullout of the United States and NATO. These initiatives include the establishment of key border crossings to expedite the processing of exports, the creation of free economic zones, and the full implementation of a trade agreement with Pakistan.
(S. Frederick Starr, Adib Farhadi / Central Asia-Caucasus Institute)
Nov 2012Economy, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Tajikistan's Winter Energy Crisis: Electricity Supply and Demand Alternatives
This study aims to assist the Government of Tajikistan in finding ways to overcome the country's frequent power shortages, and to establish sound structures and procedures for meeting the growing domestic electricity demand.
(Daryl Fields, Artur Kochnakyan, Gary Stuggins, John Besant-Jones / World Bank)
Nov 2012EnergyWorking papers
Afghanistan Diagnostics Trade Integration Study
This Diagnostics Trade Integration Study report is intended to identify concrete policy actions in three areas of endeavor: lowering the transaction costs of trade, increasing Afghanistan's competitiveness in world markets, and providing an analytical foundation for Afghanistan's national trade strategy.
(World Bank)
Nov 2012Trade FacilitationResearch and Reports
Regional Economic Outlook: Middle East and Central Asia (November 2012)
The economic outlook for the Caucasus and Central Asia remains favorable, reflecting high oil prices that are benefiting oil and gas exporters, supportive commodity prices and remittance inflows benefiting oil and gas importers, and, for both groups, moderate direct exposure to Europe. The positive outlook provides an opportunity to strengthen policy buffers to prepare for any downside risks.
Nov 2012Economy, EnergyResearch and reports
Transport Efficiency through Logistics Development: Policy Study
The report describes the state of transport and logistics development in the People’s Republic of China (PRC). Based on the results of the survey and analysis of best practices in different countries, the study makes various policy recommendations for strengthening the approach to the development of logistics in the PRC.
Oct 2012TransportResearch and reports
World Development Report 2013: Jobs
This edition stresses the role of strong private sector-led growth in creating jobs and outlines how jobs that do the most for development can spur a virtuous cycle. The report finds that poverty falls as people work their way out of hardship and as jobs empower women to invest more in their children. Efficiency increases as workers get better at what they do, as more productive jobs appear, and as less productive ones disappear.
(World Bank)
Oct 2012Economy, PovertyBooks
The New Silk Road and the Northern Distribution Network: A Golden Road to Central Asian Trade Reform?
This paper provides a constructive assessment of the challenges confronting the efforts to develop the Northern Distribution Network as the basis for a new "Silk Road."
(Graham Lee / Open Society Foundations)
Oct 2012Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
World Economic Outlook October 2012: Coping with High Debt and Sluggish Growth
This edition assesses the prospects for the global recovery in light of such risks as the ongoing euro area crisis and the "fiscal cliff" facing policy makers of the United States. Reducing the risks to the medium-term outlook implies reducing public debt in the major advanced economies.
Oct 2012EconomyResearch and reports
Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation: Power Sector Regional Master Plan
The master plan identifies projects that will improve energy security, energy efficiency, and energy trade between Afghanistan and the four Central Asian countries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. It studies the integrated development of the regional power system and looks for long-term solutions to balance demand and supply.
Oct 2012Energy, Regional CooperationResearch and reports
10 Things the WTO Can Do
This booklet explains briefly the complex and dynamic nature of trade and the World Trade Organization's (WTO) trade rules. It highlights benefits of the trading system.
(World Trade Organization)
Sep 2012Trade PolicyOthers
Kyrgyz Republic: Evolving Transition to a Market Economy (Country Assistance Program Evaluation)
This is an evaluation of the country strategies and programs of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in support of the Kyrgyz Republic during 1994-2010. ADB programs helped to improve the country’s infrastructure, connectivity, governance, capacity to deliver public services, and ability to respond to natural disasters.
Aug 2012Economy, TransportResearch and reports
CAREC Corridor Performance Measurement and Monitoring Annual Report 2011 | РУССКИЙ | 中文
This report is based on trip samples submitted by national transport associations from CAREC member countries that include performance metrics on cargo transport in the region.
Aug 2012Transport, Trade FacilitationCAREC Publications
World Economic Outlook 2012 Update: New Setbacks, Further Policy Action Needed | РУССКИЙ | 中文
The weakening global recovery, the ratcheting up of the financial market in the euro area, and lower-than-forecast growth of major emerging market economies could result in a minor setback to the global outlook. Global growth at 3.5% in 2012 and 3.9% in 2013 is marginally lower than in the April 2012 World Economic Outlook.
Jul 2012EconomyResearch and reports
Shifting Comparative Advantages in Tajikistan: Implications for Growth Strategy
The future development of the Tajik economy will be shaped by its comparative advantage on world markets. Exploiting comparative advantage enables an economy to reap gains from trade. Tajikistan’s most important comparative advantage is its hydropower potential, which is far larger than the economy’s domestic requirements.
(Souleymane Coulibaly / World Bank)
Jul 2012Energy, EconomyWorking papers
Asian Economic Integration Monitor (July 2012)
This report is a semi-annual review of Asia’s regional economic cooperation and integration. It covers 48 regional member countries of the Asian Development Bank. This issue includes a special section—Regional Integration: A Balanced View.
Jul 2012Regional CooperationResearch and reports
Asian Development Outlook 2012 Supplement
This supplement focuses on the theme Sluggish Global Economy Weighs on Asia’s Growth. It updates the economic forecasts of the Asian Development Outlook 2012 for regional economies of developing Asia.
Jul 2012EconomyOthers
Europe and Central Asia Balancing Act: Cutting Subsidies, Protecting Affordability, and Investing in the Energy Sector in Eastern Europe and Central Asian Region
This report assesses, at the micro-level for the whole region, the distributional impact of raising energy tariffs to cost-recovery levels and to simulate policy options to cushion these impacts.
(World Bank)
Jun 2012EnergyWorking papers
Geothermal Handbook: Planning and Financing Power Generation
This handbook is dedicated to geothermal energy as a source of electric power for developing countries. Many developing countries are endowed with substantial geothermal resources that could be more actively put to use.
(Magnus Gehringer, Victor Loksha / World Bank)
Jun 2012EnergyResearch and reports
Evaluating the Environment for Public-Private Partnerships in Asia-Pacific: The 2011 Infrascope
This document comprises a summary and analysis of a benchmark index and learning tool that assesses the capacity of countries in the Asia–Pacific region to carry out sustainable public–private infrastructure partnerships, as of June 2011. The study scores aspects of the regulatory and institutional frameworks, project experience and success, the investment climate, and the financial facilities in 11 developing countries (including CAREC member countries People's Republic of China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and Pakistan); in four benchmark countries (Australia, Japan, Republic of Korea, United Kingdom; and in India’s state of Gujarat.
(Economist Intelligence Unit / ADB)
May 2012Transport, Energy, Private SectorResearch and reports
Connecting to Compete 2012: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy
This third edition reports on the Logistics Performance Index (LPI) and its six component indicators. The LPI measures logistics efficiency, now widely recognized as vital for trade and growth. A country’s ability to trade globally depends on its traders’ access to global freight and logistics networks; and the efficiency of a country’s supply chain (in cost, time, and reliability) depends on specific features of its domestic economy (logistics performance).
(Jean-Francois Arvis, Monica Alina Mustra, Lauri Ojala, Ben Shepherd, and Daniel Saslavsky / World Bank)
May 2012Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Measuring Commodity-Level Trade Costs in Asia: The Basis for Effective Trade Facilitation Policies in the Region
This paper suggests that the use of trade statistics calculated in conjunction with “Doing Business” data is helpful in understanding overall as well as detailed commodity-level trade costs. The two can be regarded as alternative indicators of trade efficiency, because both indicators improve when the trade transaction is streamlined. By using trade statistics, long-term trade costs and trade costs for each commodity group can be computed.
(Shintaro Hamanaka and Romana Domingo / ADB)
Apr 2012Trade FacilitationWorking papers
Collaborative Border Management: A New Approach to an Old Problem
This issue of Economic Premise outlines a collaborative border management model which provides a comprehensive approach to tackling the issue of border clearance procedures. The model offers the potential to significantly enhance trade facilitation outcomes for developing countries.
(Gerard McLinden / World Bank)
Apr 2012Trade FacilitationBriefs and notes
Global Financial Stability Report: The Quest for Lasting Stability (April 2012) | РУССКИЙ | 中文
The report assesses changes in risks to financial stability over the past 6 months, focusing on sovereign vulnerabilities, risks stemming from private sector deleveraging, and assessing the continued resilience of emerging markets. The report probes the implications of recent reforms in the financial system for market perception of safe assets, and investigates the growing public and private costs of increased longevity risk from aging populations (Executive Summary in Russian and Chinese).
Apr 2012FinanceBooks
Impact of Services Liberalization on Industry Productivity, Exports and Development: Six Empirical Studies in the Transition Economies
This paper summarizes six of the seven studies that investigate the impact of services liberalization on productivity, focusing on services reform in the transition economies of Europe and Central Asia. The studies contribute to the growing empirical literature establishing that liberalization of barriers against service providers can make an important contribution to increasing total factor productivity, exports and growth in the economy.
(David Tarr / World Bank Institute)
Apr 2012Trade PolicyWorking papers
World Economic Outlook 2012: Growth Resuming, Dangers Remain | РУССКИЙ | 中文
The global economy has gradually strengthened after a major setback during 2011. The threat of a sharp global slowdown eased with improved activity in the United States and better policies in the euro area. (Foreword and Executive Summary are in Chinese.)
Apr 2012EconomyResearch and reports
Regional Economic Outlook 2012 Update: Caucasus and Central Asia Set for Solid Growth, but Global Risks Loom Large | РУССКИЙ | 中文
This broadly positive outlook presents an opportunity for Caucasus and Central Asian policy makers to rebuild policy buffers, prepare for possible downside risks, and foster an inclusive growth agenda.
Apr 2012EconomyResearch and reports
Asian Development Outlook 2012: Confronting Rising Inequality in Asia
The report sees that the greatest risk to the outlook is the uncertainty surrounding the resolution of sovereign debt problems in the eurozone. The theme chapter looks at widening inequality: in spite of developing Asia’s great success in raising living standards and reducing poverty, swelling income disparities threaten to undermine the pace of progress.
Apr 2012Economy, PovertyBooks
International Trade in Natural Resources: Practice and Policy
Natural resources account for 20% of world trade and dominate the exports of many countries. Policy is used to manipulate both international and domestic prices of resources, yet this policy is largely outside the disciplines of the World Trade Organization. The instruments used include export taxes, price controls, production quotas, and domestic producer and consumer taxes. This paper reviews the literature and argues that the policy equilibrium is inefficient. This inefficiency is exacerbated by market failure in long-run contracts for exploration and development of natural resources.
(Michele Ruta and Anthony J. Venables / World Trade Organization)
Mar 2012Trade FacilitationWorking papers
Aid for Trade in Asia and the Pacific: Its Role in Trade-Driven Growth
This report of the Regional Technical Group attempts to provide an overview of the experience of trade and foreign direct investment–driven growth and Aid for Trade in Asia the Pacific in order to (i) prompt new ways of gauging the region’s trade performance and capacity, (ii) galvanize the need for more Aid for Trade in the region, and (iii) offer policy lessons on optimal ways to operationalize projects on the ground.
Mar 2012Trade Facilitation, Economy, Private Sector, PovertyResearch and reports
Global Food Price Inflation and Policy Responses in Central Asia
This paper examines the implications of elevated global food prices for inflation in Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The findings suggest that global food inflation has significant short-run effects that build over time. Inflation outcomes simulated under alternative global wheat price assumptions underscore these vulnerabilities, and suggest that sustained administrative measures are unlikely to prove effective.
(A.J. Al-Eyd, David Amaglobeli, Bahrom Shukurov, Mariusz A. Sumlinski / IMF)
Mar 2012EconomyWorking papers
BRIC's Philosophies for Development Financing and Their Implications for LICs
Flows of development financing from the BRICs (Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, and the People’s Republic of China) to low-income countries (LICs) have surged in recent years. BRICs (excluding the Russian Federation) view their financing as primarily based on the principles of South-South cooperation, focusing on mutual benefits without attachment of policy conditionality. This paper provides an overview of the philosophies and modalities of BRIC financing and examines their implications for LIC economies and future LIC-BRIC engagement.
(Nkunde Mwase, Yang Yongzheng / IMF)
Mar 2012Regional Cooperation, EconomyWorking papers
CAREC 2020: A Strategic Framework for the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program 2011–2020 | РУССКИЙ
CAREC 2020 provides the strategic framework for the Program’s next 10 years. It reflects the required enhancements in the Comprehensive Action Plan to move the Program toward its vision of Good Partners, Good Neighbors, and Good Prospects.
Feb 2012Regional Cooperation, Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
Handbook of Best Practices at Border Crossings - A Transport and Trade Facilitation Perspective | РУССКИЙ
This reference document is a practical guide for government agencies and private sector bodies that operate border-crossing points. It aims to raise awareness of the range of instruments to develop and implement better trade, transport, border and customs policies. Drawing upon operational evidence and case studies, it offers best practices from both public and private perspectives. The publication primarily focuses on road border crossing points, but also touches on rail and sea crossings.
Feb 2012Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Fast and Focused – Building China’s Railways | 中文
This note reports on how the People’s Republic of China was able to build an astonishing number of large and complex railway projects under its mid and long-term railway development plan. The paper argues that three factors dominate: the concentration of responsibility, power, and access to resources in one organization; strong technical capacity and processes; and a program effect that delivers economies of standardization and scale. Published in China Transport Topics No. 3.
(John Scales, Jitendra Sondhi, and Paul Amos / World Bank)
Feb 2012TransportBriefs and notes
Accelerating Equitable Achievement of the MDGs: Closing Gaps in Health and Nutrition Outcomes
The report focuses on disparities in Millennium Development Goal (MDG) achievement within and between countries, to address major bottlenecks holding back MDG progress in Asia and the Pacific. Even countries making rapid economic progress continue to lose shocking numbers of children before their fifth birthdays as well as thousands of mothers who die unnecessarily during childbirth.
Feb 2012Economy, PovertyBooks
Mongolia: Road Sector Development to 2016
This study looks into road sector’s financial dimension, the techniques and processes followed for road maintenance and construction, and the role of human resources management and education. It tries to understand why sector performance improvement has been slow. Reflecting on lessons from international experience, it outlines a range of policy options for decision makers and proposes an agenda until 2016.
Feb 2012TransportResearch and reports
World Economic Outlook Update: Recovery Stalls, Downside Risks Intensify | РУССКИЙ | 中文
Global output is projected to expand by 3.25% in 2012, a downward revision of about 0.75 percentage points relative to the September 2011 World Economic Outlook. The global recovery is threatened by intensifying strains in the euro area and fragilities everywhere.
Jan 2012EconomyResearch and reports
Assessment of Costs and Benefits of the Customs Union for Kazakhstan
This paper, the first report under the Study of International Practice of Integration/Customs Unions, presents three possible outcomes for Kazakhstan when it entered into a customs union with Belarus and the Russian Federation. It attempts to assess the probability of success that the customs union will have with the reduction of trade facilitation costs and non-tariff barriers.
(World Bank)
Jan 2012Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Trade Corridor Management Toolkit: Overview
This toolkit is designed as a comprehensive and holistic tool to help improve the performance of trade and transport corridors. It will provide a menu-based reference for the Bank and other agencies involved in corridor‐based projects. Task managers and policy makers will be able to access in a single place, a suite of instruments to assess, improve and manage corridor performance
(Charles Kunaka, Robin Carruthers, Jonathan Stevens / World Bank)
Jan 2012Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Indicators for the Asian Development Bank Energy Sector Operations (2005–2010)
This is a report of indicators for ADB’s energy sector operations. Databases of energy projects and technical assistance projects approved during 2005–2010 have been created. The project database includes relevant information from 99 energy sector projects and 35 non-energy sector projects with clean energy components.
Jan 2012EnergyResearch and reports
Managing Mongolia's Resource Boom
With two very large mining projects expected to reach full production this decade, Mongolia is entering a commodity boom. This paper surveys what Mongolia can do, building on reform steps it has already taken, to avoid a "resource trap."
(Asel Isakova, Alexander Plekhanov, and Jeromin Zettelmeyer / EBRD)
Jan 2012EconomyWorking papers
Eurasian Integration Yearbook 2012
This annual publication focuses on the theoretical and practical aspects of Eurasian integration. The 2012 edition highlights the expansion of the Customs Union into the Single Economic Space, whose primary goal will be to promote the free movement of goods, capital, services, and people. This edition also has articles on economic cooperation in air transport, electric power, and hydropower and water management.
(Evgeny Vinokurov, ed. / Eurasian Development Bank)
2012Regional Cooperation, Trade FacilitationBooks
A Practical Guide to Trade Policy Analysis
This publication outlines the major concepts of trade policy analysis and contains practical guidance on how to apply them to concrete policy questions. It is aimed at government experts engaged in trade negotiations, as well as students and researchers involved in trade-related study or research.
(World Trade Organization and United Nations Conference on Trade and Development)
2012Trade PolicyOthers
International Trade Statistics 2012
This publication presents a comprehensive overview of the latest developments in world trade. It covers the details of merchandise trade by product and trade in commercial services.
(World Trade Organization)
2012Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Trade Facilitation Terms: An English-Russian Glossary (Revised second edition)
This revised second edition of the glossary is a collaborative work of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the Secretariat of the Commission of the Customs Union. This edition is expected to be the new standard reference on trade facilitation terms.
2012Trade FacilitationBooks
Trade Profiles 2012
This publication provides a country-by-country breakdown of trade flows and trade policy measures for WTO members and countries seeking to join the WTO. The data provided for each country includes basic economic indicators, trade policy indicators, merchandise trade flows, commercial trade flows, and industrial property indicators.
(World Trade Organization)
2012Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyResearch and reports
World Tariff Profiles 2012
This publication provides information on market access. The listing of the tariffs imposed by each WTO member on its imports is complemented with an analysis of the market access conditions it faces in its major export markets.
(World Trade Organization, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, and International Trade Centre)
2012Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyResearch and reports
World Trade Report 2012 - Trade and Public Policies: A closer look at non-tariff measures in the 21st century
The report reveals how the expansion of global production chains, climate change, and the growing importance of consumer concerns in richer countries affect the use of non-tariff measures.
(World Trade Organization)
2012Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
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