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Spending on Public Infrastructure: A Practitioner's Guide
This paper provides a methodological tool to support the collection and preparation of standardized, comprehensive data regarding public spending on infrastructure services that can be rigorously compared across countries. Infrastructure is defined to cover six sectors: irrigation, energy (primarily power), transport, communication, wastewater management, and water supply.
(Cecilia Briceno-Garmendia, Afua Sarkodie / World Bank)
Dec 2011Energy, Transport, EconomyWorking papers
[People's Republic of] China and the World Trading System
This paper looks at how to anchor the People's Republic of China (PRC) more fully into the multilateral trading system, and it sees two ways. The first is a new negotiating agenda that will include major issues of interest to the PRC and its trading partners. The second is new restraints on bilateralism and regionalism that will help preserve incentives for maintaining the current broadly non-discriminatory trading order.
(Aaditya Mattoo, Arvind Subramanian / World Bank)
Dec 2011Trade PolicyWorking papers
The Time Cost of Documents to Trade
This paper analyzes the relationship between the number of documents required to export and import and the time it takes to complete all procedures to trade. It shows that an increase in the number of documents required for export and import tends to increase the time cost of shipments.
(Mohammad Amin / World Bank)
Dec 2011Trade FacilitationWorking papers
The New Silk Road: Ten Years of the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program
This commemorative book celebrates 10 years of productive collaboration under the CAREC Program. Under the Program, member countries have made significant gains in regional transport, energy infrastructure, and trade facilitation and policy. The spirit of trust and confidence that has evolved through the years among good neighbors and good partners has led to better prospects for all.
Dec 2011Regional Cooperation, Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
Forecasting Growth in Eastern Europe and Central Asia
This paper describes the main quantitative modeling techniques that have informed EBRD growth projections since 2009. The paper describes how bridge models use high-frequency data and the generalized dynamic factor model uses a vast body of cross-country data to forecast growth.
(Franziska Ohnsorge and Yevgeniya Korniyenko / EBRD)
Dec 2011EconomyWorking papers
Impact Evaluation of Trade Interventions: Paving the Way
The focus of trade policy has shifted in recent years from economy-wide reductions in tariffs and trade restrictions toward targeted interventions to facilitate trade and promote exports. Most of these latter interventions are based on the new mantra of "aid-for-trade" rather than on hard evidence about what works and what does not. This paper discusses examples of impact evaluation using a range of methods (experimental and non-experimental), highlighting the particular issues and caveats arising in a trade context, and the valuable lessons that are already being learned.
(Olivier Cadot, Ana M. Fernandes, Julien Gourdon, Aaditya Mattoo / World Bank)
Nov 2011Trade PolicyWorking papers
Empowering Women through Rural Infrastructure
This publication describes the outcomes of a pilot project, Community-Based Rural Road Maintenance by Women Ethnic Minority Groups in Western Yunnan. The project sought to involve women and other vulnerable populations (including indigenous minorities) in rural road maintenance projects, both to undertake badly needed improvements in rural roads, and to create employment opportunities for them.
Nov 2011Transport, PovertyResearch and reports
Doing Business 2012: Doing Business in a More Transparent World
This edition assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 183 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year’s data cover regulations measured from June 2010 through May 2011. The report rankings on ease of doing business have expanded to include indicators on accessing electricity.
(IFC and World Bank)
Oct 2011Economy, Finance, Private SectorResearch and reports
Between-Country Disparities in MDGs: The Asia and Pacific Region
This paper explores disparities in Millennium Development Goals among countries in the Asia and Pacific region, with a special emphasis on health Millennium Development Goals. It provides estimates on the extent of these disparities and depicts their trends. More importantly, sources or causes of the disparities are quantified and policy implications are discussed.
(Guanghua Wan and Yuan Zhang / ADB)
Oct 2011Economy, PovertyWorking papers
Regional Economic Outlook: Middle East and Central Asia (October 2011)
The economic outlook in the Caucasus and Central Asia is broadly positive. Exports and remittances are continuing to grow solidly, helping the recovery gain firm momentum. At the same time, uncertainties over the robustness of the global recovery constitute a downside risk to the growth outlook. Key challenges facing the region over the medium term are to create jobs and foster high and inclusive growth.
Oct 2011EconomyResearch and reports
World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development
This report finds that women's lives around the world have improved dramatically, but gaps remain in many areas. A conceptual framework is used to examine progress to date, and policy actions are recommended.
(World Bank)
Sep 2011Economy, PovertyBooks
World Economic Outlook September 2011: Slowing Growth, Rising Risks | РУССКИЙ | 中文
The global economy is in a dangerous new phase. Global activity has weakened and become more uneven, confidence has fallen sharply recently, and downside risks are growing. (Full text is in English and Russian. Foreword and Executive Summary are in Chinese.)
Sep 2011EconomyResearch and reports
Energy for All: Asia’s Night Skies Reveal Growth and Gaps in Electrification
The images in this brochure compare and contrast night sky views of Asia and the Pacific from 1992 and 2009—a 17-year span. As modern energy powers development and economic growth, the expansion of brightly lit areas and the increased brightness of existing areas show how access to electricity has increased across Asia and the Pacific. Conversely, there are areas that remain dark, despite the fact that they contain substantial populations.
Sep 2011EnergyOthers
Consolidation and Collaboration: Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program’s Energy Policy in Tajikistan | РУССКИЙ
Energy is a priority of the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Program. The region’s resources are abundant and varied but unevenly distributed, which offers great potential for cooperation. This brochure shows how collaboration among CAREC countries is the best route to tapping their vast energy resources.
Sep 2011EnergyOthers
Moving Goods Faster and Better: Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program’s Transport and Trade Facilitation in Tajikistan | РУССКИЙ
The Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Program may not yet be a household name in Tajikistan, but this brochure shows how it has definitely made a difference. CAREC has helped build the highways that bring goods from producer to household and create opportunities to reap and enjoy the benefits of the country’s strategic location.
Sep 2011Transport, Trade FacilitationOthers
Asian Development Outlook 2011 Update: Preparing for Demographic Transition
This update expects developing Asia to sustain its robust growth over the next 2 years, despite the tepid outlook for the United States, the eurozone, and Japan. The region will be buttressed by healthy domestic demand and buoyant intraregional trade. Managing inflation has to be a key focus for policy makers, to allow for inclusive growth.
Sep 2011Economy, PovertyBooks
Involving Central Asia in Afghanistan’s Future—What Can Europe Do?
This paper addresses the issue of involving the Central Asian states in a more constructive relationship with Afghanistan. It discusses the limitations of the current European Union involvement with border security, and the impact of the transit value of the region on the Central Asia–Afghanistan relationship. It also addresses ways the European Union can further foster economic cooperation, participation in building the regional cooperation architecture, and people-to-people exchanges.
(Marlene Laurelle / EU-Central Asia Monitoring)
Aug 2011Regional CooperationBriefs and notes
Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2011: Toward Higher Quality Employment in Asia
This publication is the flagship annual statistical data book of the Asian Development Bank. It presents the latest available economic, financial, social, environmental, and Millennium Development Goal indicators for regional members. The special chapter in this edition—Toward Higher Quality Employment in Asia—measures the quality of employment by the status of employment and/or the ratio of employment in the informal sector.
Aug 2011Economy, Regional CooperationBooks
Guidelines for Climate Proofing Investments in the Transport Sector: Road Infrastructure Projects
This publication aims to present a step-by-step methodological approach to assist project teams incorporate climate change adaptation measures into transport sector (road infrastructure) investment projects.
Aug 2011TransportOthers
World Trade Report 2011 - The WTO and preferential trade agreements: From co-existence to coherence
This edition describes the historical development of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) and the current landscape of agreements. It examines why PTAs are established, their economic effects, and the contents of the agreements themselves. Finally it considers the interaction between PTAs and the multilateral trading system.
(World Trade Organization)
Jul 2011Regional Cooperation, Trade PolicyResearch and reports
The Great Recession and Import Protection: The Role of Temporary Trade Barriers
This volume offers a collection of research that begins to fill a major information gap by providing empirical details of many of the important changes that took place under these trade policies (i.e., antidumping, safeguards, and countervailing duties) during 2008-2009.
(Chad P. Bown, ed / World Bank)
Jul 2011Trade PolicyBooks
Asia's Changing Role in World Trade: Prospects for South-South Trade Growth to 2030
This paper projects the world economy to 2030 to demonstrate the extent to which developing Asia's rapid economic growth is likely to (i) further shift the global industrial center of gravity away from the North Atlantic to Asia, (ii) increase the importance of Asia in world trade, and (iii) boost South-South trade. The South's share of world exports is projected to rise from 33% in 2004 to 55% in 2030–even higher if slower growth in the North is assumed, or if global trade is liberalized.
(Kym Anderson and Anna Strutt / ADB)
Jul 2011Trade PolicyWorking papers
Community-based Routine Maintenance of Roads by Women's Groups: Guide for Communication Bureaus | 中文
This guide describes how to implement a system of community-based rural road maintenance involving groups of women, specifically in Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China. It is part of a pilot project which aims to show that women can effectively participate in the maintenance of rural roads and to create employment opportunities and incomes for women.
Jul 2011Transport, PovertyOthers
Community-based Routine Maintenance of Roads by Women's Groups: Manual for Maintenance Groups | 中文
This manual is aimed at women's maintenance groups responsible for the routine maintenance of rural roads. It details the different activities to be carried out by the maintenance groups to keep the road in good condition by preventing damage and carrying out minor repairs. It explains the planning and organization of the work, as well as how county communications bureaus responsible for these roads contract the groups.
Jul 2011Transport, PovertyOthers
World Economic Outlook June 2011: Mild Slowdown of the Global Expansion and Increasing Risks | РУССКИЙ | 中文
Economic activity is slowing down temporarily, downside risks have increased again, the global expansion remains unbalanced, and growth in many advanced economies is still weak.
Jun 2011EconomyResearch and reports
Trade Expansion through Market Connection - The Central Asian Markets of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, and Tajikistan
As Central Asian countries cope with the effects of the global crisis, there is need to think strategically about how to strengthen their export competitiveness in the medium- to long-term. This report recommends that Central Asian countries build their export-diversification policies on three spatial levels: urban (leading city), area (city-hinterland), and regional (integration with regional markets).
(World Bank)
Jun 2011Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 2011: Sustaining Dynamism and Inclusive Development
This edition explores ways the Asia-Pacific region can sustain dynamism and inclusive development in the medium term. It highlights the importance of greater connectivity in infrastructure and transport, and of more investment in the region’s human resources. It also stresses the need to expand and diversify the productive capacity of the region’s least developed countries in order to overcome their structural limitations and take advantage of opportunities arising from globalization.
May 2011Regional Cooperation, Economy, PovertyBooks
Is the EU-Central Asia Strategy Running Out of Steam?
The European Union’s (EU) Central Asia Strategy is approaching its fourth anniversary. Although progress has been made in building dialogue and in furthering engagement, the strategy’s limitations are increasingly obvious. This brief argues that the driving force of EU engagement should be based on a closer link between security and development. Engagement in this broad field should be underpinned by a values-based approach that seeks to promote more explicitly reform on human rights, rule of law, governance and democracy.
(Jos Boonstra, Michael Dennison / EU-Central Asia Monitoring)
May 2011Regional Cooperation, EconomyBriefs and notes
Asian Development Outlook 2011: South-South Economic Links
This edition focuses on two critical challenges of developing Asia to maintain its inclusive growth in the years ahead. First, the immediate challenge is responding to swelling inflation pressures, which can be complicated by subsequent capital inflows. Second, the region must explore and then foster new sources of growth. The strengthening of ties with developing countries, both in the region and beyond, has much potential.
Apr 2011Economy, Regional CooperationBooks
Global Monitoring Report 2011: Improving the Odds of Achieving the MDGs
This edition reports that two-thirds of developing countries are on track or close to meeting key targets for tackling extreme poverty and hunger. It examines country performance and reveals a diverse, and often hopeful, picture. With improved policies and faster growth, these countries can still achieve the targets in 2015 or soon after.
(World Bank)
Apr 2011Economy, PovertyBooks
World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security, and Development
This edition examines the changing nature of violence in the 21st century, and underlines the negative impact of repeated cycles of violence on a country or region’s development prospects. It concludes that preventing violence and building peaceful states that respond to the aspirations of their citizens requires strong leadership and concerted national and international efforts.
(World Bank)
Apr 2011Economy, PovertyBooks
World Economic Outlook 2011: Tensions from the Two-Speed Recovery—Unemployment, Commodities, and Capital Flows | РУССКИЙ | 中文
This edition discusses the challenge for most emerging market economies on how to avoid overheating in the face of closing output gaps and higher capital flows. It suggests a twofold response: (i) relying on a combination of fiscal consolidation and higher interest rates to maintain output at potential; and (ii) using macro-prudential tools—including, where needed, capital controls—to avoid increases in systemic risk arising from inflows. Chapter 2 covers CAREC countries. (Foreword and Executive Summary are in Russian and Chinese.)
Apr 2011EconomyBooks
Regional Economic Outlook April 2011: Middle East and Central Asia | РУССКИЙ | 中文
This edition takes stock of recent regional economic developments and discusses key policy issues facing the Middle East and Central Asia. In the Caucasus and Central Asia, strong growth continues on the back of higher oil and gas exports and government spending. To sustain this recovery, policy makers need to address rising inflation, respond to social pressures arising from high food prices without threatening fiscal stability, and restore the health of banking systems. (Caucasus and Central Asia Highlights are in Russian and Chinese.)
Apr 2011Economy, PovertyBooks
Rising Food and Energy Prices in Europe and Central Asia | РУССКИЙ
This paper presents the possible impact of rising food and fuel prices on Europe and Central Asian countries’ macroeconomic and poverty outcomes. It aims to illustrate the possible short-run consequences of rising prices and the countries that are most likely to be significantly affected, both adversely and positively. At the same time, it notes the importance of medium-term policy and non-policy related factors that could mitigate adverse consequences of commodity price increases.
(World Bank)
Apr 2011Energy, EconomyResearch and reports
Azerbaijan: A Cradle of Humanity Embraces Modernity
This development effectiveness brief features operations of the Asian Development Bank in Azerbaijan that reflect the Government of Azerbaijan’s priorities, including economic diversification beyond the oil sector. The Asian Development Bank’s work in Azerbaijan has focused on promoting inclusive economic growth, as well as supporting regional cooperation efforts.
Mar 2011Transport, Energy, Regional Cooperation, EconomyBriefs and notes
Kazakhstan: On the Path to Higher Levels of Development
This development effectiveness brief summarizes the assistance that the Asian Development Bank (ADB) has provided to Kazakhstan. The ADB country partnership strategy for 2011–2014 will support Kazakhstan in going beyond its middle-income country status. ADB will promote inclusive economic growth and competitiveness through complementary public and private sector investments. Further, ADB will consolidate its resources to support synergized investments in energy, transport, finance, and the urban sectors.
Mar 2011Transport, Energy, Regional Cooperation, EconomyBriefs and notes
Methodology for Impact Assessment of Free Trade Agreements
This publication presents several available methods to evaluate the impact of free trade agreements. It caters mainly to policy makers from developing countries and aims to equip them with economic knowledge and techniques necessary to conduct their own economic evaluation studies on existing or future agreements, or to critically re-examine the results of impact assessment studies conducted by others.
(Michael G. Plummer, David Cheong, Shintaro Hamanaka / ADB)
Feb 2011Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Priority Directions for Uzbekistan to Engage in Transport Communications Development in Afghanistan: Challenges and Prospects | РУССКИЙ
This brief explores optimal paths for economic cooperation between Afghanistan and Uzbekistan in the context of improving implementation of joint transport communication projects. The research also considers issues which may influence bilateral cooperation, such as (i) the military-political situation in the country and analysis of third-party geopolitical and geo-economic interests, (ii) the socioeconomic situation in Afghanistan and the main directions of the Uzbek–Afghan economic partnership, including problems and prospects of transport and transit cooperation between the two countries. (Russian only)
(Center for Economic Research)
Feb 2011TransportBriefs and notes
Uzbekistan: A Partnership for Growth
This development effectiveness brief highlights the partnership between the Asian Development Bank and Uzbekistan. The Asian Development Bank has supported Uzbekistan’s efforts toward environmentally sustainable rural development, private sector development, regional transport and transit, and human capital through improving access to water, education, and health services.
Feb 2011Transport, Regional Cooperation, Private Sector, EconomyBriefs and notes
World Economic Outlook Update: Global Recovery Advances but Remains Uneven | РУССКИЙ | 中文
Global output is projected to expand by 4.5% in 2011, an upward revision of about 0.25 percentage points relative to the October 2010 edition. This reflects stronger-than-expected activity in the second half of 2010 as well as new policy initiatives in the United States that will boost activity in 2011.
Jan 2011EconomyResearch and reports
Intraregional Trade Costs in Asia: A Primer
While most Asian countries actively engage in bilateral or regional trade and economic integration initiatives, including trade facilitation or trade cost reduction programs or targets, little is known about the level of intraregional trade costs in Asia and to what extent these costs may have decreased over time. To address this knowledge gap, this paper estimates and analyzes intra- and extra-regional trade costs of 4 Asian subregions, namely Association of Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN), South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), North and Central Asia, and East and Northeast Asia.
(Trade and Investment Division / UNESCAP)
Jan 2011Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, Regional CooperationWorking papers
Proposals for WTO Reform: A Synthesis and Assessment
This paper summarizes the major arguments and proposals to reform the modus operandi of the World Trade Organization—including decision-making procedures, negotiating modalities, and dispute settlement.
(Bernard Hoekman / World Bank)
Jan 2011Trade PolicyWorking Papers
Unfinished Business? The WTO's Doha Agenda
This book examines the state and the fate of the Doha Development Agenda. The volume has three key objectives: to provide qualitative and quantitative information about the implications of what is currently on the table; to examine controversial areas where further progress might be made; and to identify lessons that might be of use for future negotiations.
(World Bank)
Jan 2011Trade PolicyBooks
Connecting Landlocked Developing Countries to Markets
This book aims to help the policy maker and development community in general to understand the nature of the problems and policy dilemmas that landlocked countries face to trade with the rest of the world. An important breakthrough in the literature, this volume focuses on a new conceptual framework that challenges the previous paradigm of physical infrastructure and state-led access solutions, embodied in many treaties.
(Jean Francois Arvis, Robin Carruthers, Graham Smith, and Christopher Willoughby / World Bank)
Jan 2011Transport, Trade FacilitationBooks
Institutions for Regional Integration: Toward an Asian Economic Community
This study looks at the institutional framework for regional cooperation and integration and analyzes why, despite the dense network of arrangements and institutions, Asia remains "institution light." It recommends some principles and options to strengthen Asia's institutional architecture to achieve an Asian economic community. CAREC is among the regional programs discussed in the study.
Jan 2011Regional CooperationBooks
Infrastructure and Growth in Developing Asia
This paper presents the state of infrastructure in developing Asian countries. It applies two distinct approaches (growth regressions and growth accounting) to analyze the link between infrastructure, growth, and productivity. The main conclusion is that a number of countries in developing Asia have significantly improved their basic infrastructure endowments in the recent past, and this appears to correlate significantly to good growth performances.
(Stéphane Straub, Akiko Terada-Hagiwara / ADB)
Jan 2011Transport, Economy, Energy, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Sustainable Transport Initiative: An Overview
This publication gives an overview of the Asian Development Bank’s (ADB) sustainable transport initiative (STI). Strategy 2020 is the ADB long-term strategic framework for 2008–2020. During this period, ADB lending and technical assistance operations in Asia and the Pacific will emphasize inclusive economic growth, environmentally sustainable growth, and regional integration. The STI operation plan provides details of how ADB will update its operations in the transport sector in line with Strategy 2020. ADB will focus on creating transport systems that are accessible, safe, affordable, and environment-friendly.
Jan 2011Transport, Regional CooperationOthers
Monitoring Road Works Contracts and Unit Costs for Enhanced Governance in Europe and Central Asia
The study establishes a framework for cross-country comparative assessments of the procurement and implementation processes of road works contracts financed by the World Bank. Some indicators used to capture the trends for each country include (i) difference between contract values and their engineer’s estimates; (ii) cost overruns; (iii) time overruns; (iv) bidding indicators for contracts with and without prequalification; (v) time elapsed between bid opening and contract signing dates; (vi) cost per kilometer of similar works; (vii) road works unit costs; and (viii) ratios between supervision contract values and the related road works contract values.
(Victoria Alexeeva, Cesar Queiroz, and Satoshi Ishihara / World Bank)
Jan 2011TransportWorking papers
Eurasian Integration Yearbook 2011
The 2011 edition presents the chronology of 2 decades of post-Soviet disintegration and integration, from 1991 to 2010. It has articles on other subjects as well, including economic cooperation in telecommunications and nuclear energy.
(Evgeny Vinokurov, ed. / Eurasian Development Bank)
2011Regional CooperationBooks
Making Globalization Socially Sustainable
This publication discusses ways of making globalization socially sustainable. Globalization has the potential to promote growth and development but concerns have been raised about its effects on jobs and wages.
(International Labour Office and World Trade Organization)
2011Economy, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
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